Serum Zinc Deficiency Test, Its Importance and Prevention during Pregnancy
International Journal of Science and Qualitative Analysis
Volume 1, Issue 3, September 2015, Pages: 33-42
Received: Jul. 6, 2015; Accepted: Jul. 14, 2015; Published: Jul. 17, 2015
Views 4481      Downloads 305
Entela Treska, Center of Molecular Diagnostics and Genetic Researches, University Hospital of Obstetrics and Gynecology “Queen Geraldine”, Tirana, Albania
Kozeta Vaso, Chemistry Department, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Tirana, Tirana, Albania
Zhani Treska, Center of Molecular Diagnostics and Genetic Researches, University Hospital of Obstetrics and Gynecology “Queen Geraldine”, Tirana, Albania
Article Tools
Follow on us
Because zinc is so important across numerous functions, a deficiency of it can cause a host of problems. Zinc deficiency during pregnancy can negatively affect both the mother and fetus. A healthy, balanced diet can help provide necessary minerals and vitamins. Zinc deficiency is caused by inadequate levels of zinc in the diet. It also plays a role in carbohydrate breakdown (which supplies energy), as well as in cell growth, division and reproduction. Medical tests can determine whether our body fluids contain high levels of zinc. Samples of blood or feces can be collected in a doctor's office and sent to a laboratory that can measure zinc levels. 500 samples for this study were taken from May 2011 until December 2012, at the University Hospital of Obstetrics and Gynecology "Queen Geraldine" in Tirana, Albania. These was a random selection of these samples and groups obtained from this study resulted in normal pregnant women (control group) and high risk pregnant women, from first to third trimester of pregnancy. During this period we studied the clinical cartels of each pregnant woman, in the premises of the hospital archives, to differentiate cases according to hospitalization diagnoses, maternal age, phetus age etc. Laboratory work for this study was done at the “Public Health Institution” in Tirana, using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS VARIAN-200); Clinical-Biochemical Laboratory "PhD. Stelijan Buzo "in Tirana, using Photometry (End-Point); “The Nuclear Physics Institution” in Tirana, using Total X-ray Fluorescence. Data taken from the corresponding laboratories, were divided into different groups, to differentiate pregnant women and make the comparison to the control group (normal pregnant women). Pregnant women were divided according to: age, number of deliveries, fetus age, education, residence and also hospitality diagnosis. The most frequent diagnosis and their prevalence of deficiency was as follows: Cephalic: 131 cases (26.2%), from which 90 cases (18%) resulted in zinc deficiency; Partus premature: 71 cases (14.2%), from which 41 cases (8.2%) resulted in zinc deficiency; Hypertension: 63 cases (12.6%), from which 44 cases (8.8%) resulted in zinc deficiency; Anemia: 45 cases (9%), from which 37 cases (7.4%) resulted in zinc deficiency. There were no significant changes (Fexperimental< Fcritical) between three laboratories using different methods (Photometry, Total X-Ray Fluorescence and Atomic Absorption).
AAS Method, Total X-ray Fluorescence, Photometry (End-Point), Zinc Determination, Serum Zinc Test, Zinc in Pregnancy
To cite this article
Entela Treska, Kozeta Vaso, Zhani Treska, Serum Zinc Deficiency Test, Its Importance and Prevention during Pregnancy, International Journal of Science and Qualitative Analysis. Vol. 1, No. 3, 2015, pp. 33-42. doi: 10.11648/j.ijsqa.20150103.11
Prasad, A.S. Clinical manifestations of zinc deficiency. Annu. Rev. Nutr. 1985, 5, 341-363.
Prasad, A.S.; Halsted, J.A.; Nadimi, M. Syndrome of iron deficiency anemia, hepatosplenomegaly, hypogonadism, dwarfism and geophagia. Am. J. Med. 1961, 31, 532-546.
Prasad, A.S.; Miale, A.J.; Farid, Z.; Sandstead, H.H.; Schulert, A.R. Zinc metabolism in patients with the symptoms of iron deficiency, anaemia, hepatosplenomegaly, dwarfism and hypogonadism. J. Lab. Clin. Med. 1963, 61, 537-549.
Sandstead, H.H. Zinc deficiency. A public health problem? Am. J. Dis. Child 1991, 145, 853-859.
Aggett, P.J. Acrodermatitis enteropathica. J. Inherit. Metab. Dis. 1983, 6, 39-43.
Failla, M.L.; van de Veerdonk, M.; Morgan, W.T.; Smith, J.C., Jr. Characterization of zinc-binding proteins of plasma in familial hyperzincemia. J. Lab. Clin. Med. 1982, 100, 943-952.
Chernecky CC, Berger BJ (2008). Laboratory Tests and Diagnostic Procedures, 5th ed. St. Louis: Saunders.
Parker M. M, F. L. Humoller and D. J. Mahler,(1967) Clin. Chem. 13, 40. Determination of Copper and Zinc in Biological Material.
Butrimovitz G. P, and W. C. Purdy, (1977). Anal. Chim. Acta 94, 63 The Determination of Zinc in Blood Plasma By Atomic Absorption Spectrometry
Fernandez F. J, and H. L. Kahn, (1971). Clin. Chem. Newsl. 3, 24. Clinical Methods for Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy.
James, B. E., and MacMahon, R. A., (1971) An effect of trichioracetic acid on the determination of zinc by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Clin. Chim. Acta 32,307-309.
Treska E. (2013) “Evaluating Zinc and Zinc-Enzymes, as important factors for a healthy diet during pregnancy”, ISBN: 978-981-07-8020-3.
Treska E. (2013) “Zinc diagnostic tests, its deficiency and importance during pregnancy”, ISBN: 978-98107-6447-0.
Tietz N.W, W.B. Saunders Co, (1999).Textbook of Clinical Chemistry, Ed. Philadelphia
Fitton, G. (1997) X-Ray fluorescence spectrometry, in Gill, R. (ed.), Modern Analytical Geochemistry: An Introduction to Quantitative Chemical Analysis for Earth, Environmental and Material Scientists: Addison Wesley Longman, UK.
Potts, P.J.(1987), A Handbook of Silicate Rock Analysis: Chapman and Hall.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186