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Prevalence and Risk Factors of Metabolic Syndrome in Pregnant Women in the Centre and Littoral Regions of Cameroon
European Journal of Clinical and Biomedical Sciences
Volume 6, Issue 5, October 2020, Pages: 104-115
Received: Jun. 21, 2020; Accepted: Jul. 9, 2020; Published: Oct. 13, 2020
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Authors
Jules Destin Djeufouata, Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Buea, Buea, Cameroon
Walter Ebot Ojong, Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Buea, Buea, Cameroon
Theophile Nana Njamen, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Buea, Buea, Cameroon
Jules Clement Nguedia Assob, Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Buea, Buea, Cameroon; Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Douala, Douala, Cameroon
Bruno Phelix Telefo, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Dschang, Dschang, Cameroon
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Abstract
Background: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) has increased exponentially this last decades in sub Saharan Africa. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome, its components and the risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome in Cameroonian pregnant women. Methods: It was a hospital-based cross sectional study involving pregnant women recruited in 16 public health facilities in the Centre and Littoral Regions of Cameroon. Socio-demographic factors and medical history were recorded using a structured questionnaire. Blood samples were collected and biochemical analyses were performed at the Laboratory Unit of the Bangangté District Hospital. The criteria given by National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III 2004) were modified to adapt in pregnancy state and used for assessment of metabolic syndrome. The Chi-square test, Pearson correlation test, Student-test, and multivariable logistic regression were used in this study. Results: A total of 859 pregnant women aged from 17 to 45 years were enrolled. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 7.0%. The prevalence of individual components of metabolic syndrome were: hyperglycaemia (47.1%), obesity (24.0%), hypertension (20.5%), Low High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (16.3%) and hypertriglyceridaemia (3.7%). Participants with metabolic syndrome had higher mean values of systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, body mass index, triglycerides and lower high density lipoprotein cholesterol compared to those without metabolic syndrome. There was no significant association between socio-demographic factors and metabolic syndrome. High parity, family (parents) history of type 2 diabetes mellitus were positively associated with metabolic syndrome. Parity and gravidity were positively correlated with obesity. Obesity, hyperglycaemia, high systolic blood pressure, low high density lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly associated with metabolic syndrome. Furthermore, 72.6% of participants displayed at least one risk factor of metabolic syndrome. Conclusion: Metabolic syndrome is common in the Cameroonian pregnant women and its most prevalent components are hyperglycaemia and obesity. Increased in parity and parent history of type 2 diabetes mellitus were significantly associated with metabolic syndrome. Also, more than two-third of participants have at least one component of metabolic syndrome. The high prevalence of metabolic syndrome, hyperglycemia, obesity and hypertension demonstrates the need to closely follow up pregnant women in order to minimize the risk of metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes mellitus, maternal and foetal adverse outcomes.
Keywords
Metabolic Syndrome, Prevalence, Pregnancy, Metabolic Syndrome Components, Association, Risk Factors
To cite this article
Jules Destin Djeufouata, Walter Ebot Ojong, Theophile Nana Njamen, Jules Clement Nguedia Assob, Bruno Phelix Telefo, Prevalence and Risk Factors of Metabolic Syndrome in Pregnant Women in the Centre and Littoral Regions of Cameroon, European Journal of Clinical and Biomedical Sciences. Vol. 6, No. 5, 2020, pp. 104-115. doi: 10.11648/j.ejcbs.20200605.16
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Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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