Non Detection of Candida nivariensis and Candida bracarensis Among Candida glabrata Sensu Lato Isolates in the West Region of Cameroon
European Journal of Clinical and Biomedical Sciences
Volume 6, Issue 5, October 2020, Pages: 71-77
Received: Aug. 12, 2020; Accepted: Aug. 24, 2020; Published: Sep. 7, 2020
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Claude Nangwat, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Dschang, Dschang, Cameroon
Aude Ngueguim Dougue, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Yaounde I, Yaounde, Cameroon
Cyrille Levis Kountchou, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Dschang, Dschang, Cameroon
Alfred Itor Ekpo, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Dschang, Dschang, Cameroon
Thierry Kammalac Ngouana, Biomedical Research Unit, Sion Laboratory, Yaounde, Cameroon
Jean Paul Dzoyem, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Dschang, Dschang, Cameroon
Christopher Bonglavnyuy Tume, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Dschang, Dschang, Cameroon
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No study in Cameroon has been undertaken to check for the presence of the cryptic species belonging to the Candida glabrata complex, which have varying antifungal susceptibility profiles. In this regard, we analyzed a collection of 54 clinical isolates of C. glabrata sensu lato obtained from 1551 samples of 490 participants. These participants included 80 diabetic patients, 323 HIV-infected subjects, 73 pregnant women and 14 of some other patients who had none of the aforementioned conditions. Our study aimed at identifying Candida glabrata cryptic species among clinical isolates of Candida glabrata sensu lato from the West region of Cameroon and to evaluate their susceptibility pattern to some antifungals. Conventional tests such as culture on CHROMagar™ Candida, germ tube formation and chlamydospore formation tests were used for the 1st line identification of our isolates, while the matrix assisted laser desorption ionisation – time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) was used for second line identification and confirmation of identifications. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of Ketoconazole (Sigma Aldrich, China), Nystatine (Sigma Aldrich, China), Amphotericin B (Dominique Dutscher), Itraconozole (Sigma Aldrich, China), Voriconazole (Acros organics, China), and Clotrimazole (Acros organics, China) vis-à-vis 43 isolates, were determined according to the protocol proposed by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M27-A3 and M27-S4, with slight modifications. Of the 54 isolates, none was identified as C. nivariensis or C. bracarensis by MALDI-TOF, all the 54 (100%) isolates were confirmed to be C. glabrata stricto sensu. CLO (MIC range: 0.25 - >4 µg/mL) was most resisted by our isolates (95.35%), while 32.56% were resistant to KET (range of MICs: 0.03 - >4 µg/mL). On the other hand, ECVs showed that AMB (MIC range: 0.03 - 4 µg/mL) and ICZ (MIC range: 0.25 - 4 µg/mL) had very good activities against our isolates, as 81.4% of the isolates were wild type for both antifungals. On the other hand, VOR (range of MICs: 0.125 - >4 µg/mL) showed a poor activity, as most of our isolates (93.02%) were non-wild type for the antifungal. The number of isolates used in this study was not enough to conclude that C. nivariensis and C. bracarensis isolates are absent in the West Region or other parts of Cameroon, so we recommend that more of such studies be carried out in Cameroon, as this could help detect the presence of any of these emerging species with varying antifungal susceptibility profiles.
Candida glabrata Sensu Lato, C. nivariensis, C. bracarensis, C. glabrata Stricto Sensu, Antifungal Susceptibility Testing
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Claude Nangwat, Aude Ngueguim Dougue, Cyrille Levis Kountchou, Alfred Itor Ekpo, Thierry Kammalac Ngouana, Jean Paul Dzoyem, Christopher Bonglavnyuy Tume, Non Detection of Candida nivariensis and Candida bracarensis Among Candida glabrata Sensu Lato Isolates in the West Region of Cameroon, European Journal of Clinical and Biomedical Sciences. Vol. 6, No. 5, 2020, pp. 71-77. doi: 10.11648/j.ejcbs.20200605.11
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