Hepatitis B and C Surface Antigens and Typhoid Fever in Voluntary Non – Remunerated Blood Donors in Abakaliki, Nigeria
European Journal of Clinical and Biomedical Sciences
Volume 5, Issue 1, February 2019, Pages: 9-15
Received: Feb. 14, 2019; Accepted: Mar. 21, 2019; Published: Apr. 22, 2019
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Authors
Unah Victor Unah, Department of Microbiology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria
Eze Emmanuel Aniebonam, Department of Microbiology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria
Lerum Nathaniel Isaiah, Department of Microbiology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria
Egbe Kingsley Andrew, Department of Microbiology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria
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Abstract
Infections due to Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C Viruses (HBV and HCV) are worldwide significant problems in public health. This cross-sectional and comparative study was carried out to evaluate and compare the prevalence of HBV, HCV and typhoid bacteria among voluntary non-remunerated blood donors in Abakaliki, Nigeria. A total of 307 voluntary non-remunerated blood donors were screened using rapid test (Global Rapid Diagnostic Kit, USA) for the detection of HBsAg and anti-HCV in serum samples. The positive samples were screened using ELISA Kit (Clinotech Diagnostics, Canada) to check the specificity of the screening test for HBV and HCV. The results obtained showed that 20(6.52%) and 10(3.26%) were seropositive to HBsAg and anti-HCV respectively. The prevalence of HBsAg and HCV were higher in males 17(5.54%) and 6(1.95%) compared to 3(0.98%) and 4(1.30%) in females respectively. Age specific prevalence of HBV was higher in the age brackets 15-24 and 25-34 years with 4(6.67%), and 14(8.33%), lower in the age bracket 35-44 with 2(2.70%) and lowest in the age bracket 45+ years with 0(0.00%). Age specific prevalence of HCV was higher in the age brackets 25-34 and 35-44 years with 7(4.17%) and 3(4.05%) respectively and lowest in the age brackets 15-24 and 45+ years with no cases at all among them. Statistically, there was no significant relationship between age, HBV and HCV infections (p > 0.05). The most important risk factors in the acquisition of HBsAg as revealed in this study appears to be: those with multiple sexual partners, 12(20.00%), family history of hepatitis, 4(15.39%), blood transfusion 5(9.62%), and tribal mark/tattooing, 2(6.25%) while the most important risk factors in the acquisition of HCV appears to be: family history of hepatitis, 5(19.23%), and blood transfusion 4(7.69%). In comparison, HBV is more prevalent among blood donors in Abakaliki than HCV. Furthermore, this study also reveals that few blood donors have bacteraemia, thus the prevalence of typhoid bacteria among blood donors is very low. The intermediate prevalence of HBV and HCV, and low prevalence of typhoid bacteria recorded among blood donors in this study are probably a reflection of situation in Abakaliki, Nigeria. Therefore, urgent-preventive measures should be taken to set up campaign against transmission of HBV and HCV in Abakaliki, Nigeria. To lower hepatitis prevalence, program of active screening and vaccination for voluntary non-remunerated blood donors is recommended.
Keywords
HBV, HCV, Typhoid Bacteria, Voluntary Non-Remunerated, Blood Donor
To cite this article
Unah Victor Unah, Eze Emmanuel Aniebonam, Lerum Nathaniel Isaiah, Egbe Kingsley Andrew, Hepatitis B and C Surface Antigens and Typhoid Fever in Voluntary Non – Remunerated Blood Donors in Abakaliki, Nigeria, European Journal of Clinical and Biomedical Sciences. Vol. 5, No. 1, 2019, pp. 9-15. doi: 10.11648/j.ejcbs.20190501.13
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Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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