Review on Rational Use of Antmicrobials in Veterinary Practice
International Journal of Biomedical Engineering and Clinical Science
Volume 5, Issue 4, December 2019, Pages: 70-77
Received: Aug. 21, 2019; Accepted: Nov. 7, 2019; Published: Nov. 14, 2019
Views 616      Downloads 198
Selamawit Fentahun Ali, School of Veterinary Medicine, Wollo University, Dessie, Ethiopia
Article Tools
Follow on us
Veterinary drugs are used as therapeutic, prophylactic and growth promotion. The review was conducted with the aim of assessing the rational use of veterinary antimicrobials. Veterinary drugs are used in livestock sector either rationally or irrationally. Rational use of veterinary drugs means sick animals receive medications appropriate to their clinical needs, in doses that meet their own individual requirements, for an adequate period, and at the lowest cost. Whereas irrational drug use are characterized by over prescription, omission, the use of inappropriate dosage, incorrect duration, misuse of drug, take unnecessary risk, over use /frequent use of drugs and not stick with withdrawal period of a drug. The review indicates veterinary drugs used irrationally due to lack of knowledgeable of healthcare providers, lack of treatment guidelines, essential drug lists and national formularies, lack of diagnostic support services such as laboratory services, self-medication and purchasing of antibiotics directly from pharmacies, street vendors or markets and inadequate supply of veterinary drugs. Irrational use of drugs leads to antimicrobial resistance which is the current global health threat to animals and human being. Hence, veterinary drugs, especially, antimicrobial agents should be prudently used, improve availability of key essential drugs on stock through good drug supply management to reduce misuse of drugs and therapeutic failure, keep the withdrawal period to safeguard the public as well the livestock from drug residual effects and development of antimicrobial resistance are recommended.
Antimicrobials, Drugs, Irrational, Rational, Resistance
To cite this article
Selamawit Fentahun Ali, Review on Rational Use of Antmicrobials in Veterinary Practice, International Journal of Biomedical Engineering and Clinical Science. Vol. 5, No. 4, 2019, pp. 70-77. doi: 10.11648/j.ijbecs.20190504.13
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Clardy, J., Fischbach, M. and Currie, C. (2009): The natural history of antibiotics. Clin Microbiol. Rev., 19 (11): 437-441.
EFSA, (2009): The European Union Summary Report on antimicrobial resistance in zoonotic and indicator bacteria from humans, animals and food in the European Union. EFSA Journal., 9 (7): 2154-2155.
WHO, (World Health Organization). (2012): Rational use of medicines. World Health Organization «int/medicines/areas/rational Accessed». Pp. 18-7.
WHO, (World Health Organization). (2004): The world medicin Situation; World health organization. Geneva, Switzerland.
Marshall, B. M. and Levy, S. B. (2011): Food animals and antimicrobials: impacts on human health. ClinMicrobiolRev., 24 (4): 718-733.
Peeples, L. (2012): Antibiotic Resistance Spreads through Environment, Threatens Modern Medicine . antibiotic-resistance-environment-livestock, 2012.
Goosens, H., Ferech, M., VanderStichele, R. and Elseviers, M. (2005): For the ESAC project group. Outpatient antibiotic use in Europe and association with resistance: a cross- national database study. Lancet., 365: 579-587.
Batas, V., Spiri, C. A., Petronijevic, R., Jankovic, S. and Milicevic, D. (2007): Determination of the metabolites ofnitro furan antibiotics in animal tissue and primary animalproducts by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Tehnol. mesa., 48 (6): 242-249.
Rehan, S., Singh, C., Tripathi, D. and Kela, K. (2001) Study of drug utilization pattern in dental OPD at tertiary care teaching hospital. Indian Journal Dental Researcher, 12: 51-56.
Endale, G., Solomon, A., Wuletaw, A. and Asrat, A. (2013) Antibiotic prescribing pattern in a referral hospital in Ethiopia. Africa Journal Pharmacology, 7 (38): 2657-2661.
Beyene, T., Assefa, S., Ayana, D., Jibat, T. and Tadesse, F. (2016) Assessment of Rational Veterinary DrugsUse in Livestock at Adama District Veterinary Clinic Central Ethiopia. Veterinary Science Technocology 7: 319.
Kobal, S., Cupic, V., Muminovic, M. and Velev, R. (2007): Source of antimicrobials. Pharmacology for students of veterinary medicine. 3rd Edition, Pp, 277.
Velev, R., Cupic, V., Muminovic, M., Kobalgrade. and Saraevo, S. (2007): Pharmacology for students of veterinary medicine. 3rd edition. Iowa State University Press, P, 89.
Navashin, S. M. (1997): The science of antibiotics: a retrospective and view to the future. Antibiot Chemother., 42 (5): 3-9.
Baggot, J., Giguere, S., Prescott, J., Walker, R. and Dowling, M. (2006): Antimicrobial Therapy in Veterinary Medicine. Iowa State University Press. Ames. IA., 62: 221-248.
Fredrick, (2009): Food safety and health control. American society for health. J. Cid. Food., 17 (2): 133-141.
Chee-Sanford, J. C. (2013): Environmental Impacts of Antibiotic Use in the Animal Production Industry: Prevention of Infectious Diseases in Livestock and Wildlife, Pp, 25-28.
Kabir, S. M. L., M. M. Rahman, M. B. Rahman, M. M. Rahman and S. U. Ahmed, 2004. The dynamics of probiotics on growth performance and immune response in broilers. Int. J. Poult. Sci., 3: 361-364.
Kao Y-M, Chang M, Cheng C, Chou S. Multiresidue determination of veterinary drugs in chicken and swine muscles by high performance liquid chromatography. J Food Drug Anal. 2001; 9: 84–95.
Kennedy, J., Codling, C. E., Jones, B. V., Dobson, A. D., and Marchesi, J. R. (2008). Diversity of microbes associated with the marine sponge, Haliclona simulans, isolated from Irish waters and identification of polyketide synthase genes from the sponge metagenome. Environ. Microbiol. 10, 1888–1902. doi: 10.1111/j.1462-2920.2008.01614.
Graham, J., Haidt, J., and Nosek, B. (2007). The moral foundations of liberals and conservatives. Unpublished.
Jensen, B. B. 1998. The impact of feed additives on the microbial ecology of the gut in young pigs. Journal of Animal and Feed Sciences, 7: 4564, Suppl. 1.
Hanmant, A. and Priyadarshini, K. (2011). Prescription analysis to evaluate rational use of antimicrobials. Int J Pharmacol Biol Sci. BioMed Central.
Akhtar MS, Divya V, Pillai K, Kiran D, Roy MS, Najmi AK, et al. Drug prescribing practices in paediatric department of a North Indian university teaching hospital. Asian J Pharm Clin Res. 2012; 5: 146–9.
Sanders P. Veterinary drug residue control in the European Union. Technologija mesa. 2007; 1 (2): 59–68.
Gurbani, N. (2011): Problems and impact of irrational medicines: Use and tools and interventionsto improve medicines use, Pharmacology, 43: 7.
Ofori, R., Brhlikova, P. and Pollock, M. (2016): Prescribing indicators at primary health care centers withinthe WHO African region: A systematic analysis. Public Health, 16: 724.
Naicker, S., Plange, J., Tutt, C. and Eastwood, B. (2009): Shortage of healthcare workers in developing countriesAfrica Ethnics Diversity, 19: 60–64.
Holloway, K. A. (2011): Promoting the rational use of antibiotics. Regional Adviser, Essential drugs and other medicines, World Health Organization, Regional Office for South-East Asia: Regio. Health., 15 (1): 122-130.
APUA, 2012: The need to improve antibiotic use in food animals. The Alliance for the Prudent Use of pdf. Accessed on 3rd May 2012.
WHO, (2009): Medicines use in primary care in developing and transitional countries: Fact book summarizing results from studies reported between 1990 and 2006, Pp, 175-194.
Van Lunen, T. A. (2003): Growth performance of pigs fed diets with and without tylosin phosphate supplementation and reared in a biosecure all-in all-out housing system. Can. Vet. J., 44: 571–576.
Adams, H. R. (2001): Medical care to increase production efficiency. Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 8th Edition. Iowa State University Press, Pp, 868-897.
Partanen, K., Siljander-Rasi, H., Pentikainen, J., Pelkonen, S. and Fossi, M. (2007): Effects of weaning age and formic acid-based feed additives on pigs from weaning to slaughter. Arch. Anim. Nutr., 61: 336–356.
Cromwell, G. L., Stahly, T. S., Jensen, A. H., Plumlee, M. P., Krider, J. L. and Russett, J. C. (1984): Efficacy of thiopeptin as a growth promotant for growing barrows and gilts a cooperative study. J. Anim. Sci., 59: 892–895.
Mellon, M., Benbrook, C., Benbrook, K. L. and Cambridge, M., y. (2001): Union of Concerned Scientists. Hogging it' Estimates of antimicrobial abuse in livestock.
Food and Drug Administration Center for Veterinary Medicine, (2010): The Judicious Use of Medically Important Antimicrobial Drugs in Food- Producing Animals. Draft Guidance for Industry. NCBI. Antimicrobia., 74 (3): 417–433.
Mellata, M. (2013): Human and avian extra intestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli: infections, zoonotic risks, and antibiotic resistance trends. Pathog. Dis., 10: 916–932.
Hurd, H. S., Brudvig, J., Dickson, J., Mirceta, J., Polovinski, M. and Matthews, N. (2008): Swine health impact on carcass contamination and human food borne risk. Public Health Rep., 123: 343–351.
Elder, R. O., Keen, J. E., Wittum, T. E., Callaway, T. R., Edrington, T. S. and Anderson, R. C. (2002):“Intervention to reduce fecal shedding of enter hemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 in naturally infected cattle using neomycin sulfate,” in American Society of Animal Science/American Dairy Science Association Joint Meeting. Proc Natl. Acad Sci., 97: 2999-3003.
Giguere, S. L., Baggot, J. F., Prescott, R. D. and Walker, S. (2006): Antimicrobial Drug Action and In teraction. 2nd Edition. Blackwell Publishing, Ames Iowa, USA, Pp, 219-221.
Cars, O., Molstad, S., Struwe, J. and Strama, A. (2008): A Swedish working model for containment of antibiotic resistance. Euro. Surveillance., 13: 22–5.
IDSP, (2008): Integrated Disease Surveillance Project Annual Report, Final. New Delhi: Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Pp, 127-138.
Drug Administration and control Authority of Ethiopia, (2005): Antimicrobial use, resistance and containment base line survey synthesis of findings. J. Plos. Org., 22: 563-566.
Dellinger, E. P., Haynes, A. B., Weiser, T. G., Berry, W. R., Lipsitz, S. R. and Breizat, A. H. (2009): A surgical safety checklist to reduce morbidity and mortality in a global population. N Engl J Med., 360: 491–499.
Guleria, R., Srivastava, R. K., RoyChaudhury, R., Ganguly, N. K., Bramhachari, S. K. and Singh, S. (2011): National Policy for Containment of Antimicrobial Resistance, (Academic press, India).
Kanneene J, Miller R. Problems associated with drug residues in beef from feeds and therapy. Review of Sci and Technol. 1997; 16: 694-708.
GOV. UK: Guidance Veterinary medicines for livestock. Livestock and Food and farming, Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs. 2013.
Gracey J, Collins D, Hvey R. Meat hygiene, 10th edition. Harcourt Brace Press, London. 1999; 299-319.
Rhinehart, E., Goldmann, D. A., ORourke, E. J. (1991): Adaptation of the Centers for Disease Control guidelines for the prevention of nosocomial infection in a pediatric intensive care unit in Jakarta, Indonesia. Am J Med., 91: 213–220.
Sinha, K. (2011): MCI plans to send docs back to lecture halls. Times of India April 5. AJNR Am J Neuradiol., 33: 1845–1850.
Weese, J. S., Giguère, J. F., Prescott, J. D., Baggot, R. D., Walker, H. and Dowling, P. M. (2006): Prudent Use of Antimicrobials. J. Intern. Med., 20 (1): 55-62.
Okeke, I. N., Lamikanra, A. and Edelman, R. (1999): Socioeconomic and behavioral factors leading to acquired bacterial resistance to antibiotics in developing countries. Emerg Infect Dis., 5: 18-27.
Monnet, D. L., Albrich, W. C. and Harbarth, S. (2004): Antibiotic selection pressure and resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcuspyogenes. Emerg Infect Dis., 10: 514–517.
Kardas, P., Devine, S., Golembesky, A. and Roberts, C. (2005): A systematic review and meta-analysis of misuse of antibiotic therapies in the community. International Journal of Antimicrob. Agen., 26: 106-113.
WHO, 2011: Surgical Safety: Available from:
WHO, (2013): World Health Organization publications on tuberculosis.
Levine, O. S. and Cherian, T. (2007): Pneumococcal vaccination for Indian children. Indian Pediatr., 44: 491–496.
Davis, J., Smith, G. W., Baynes, R. E., Tell, L. A., Webb, A. I. and Riviere, J. E. (2009): Update on drugs prohibited from extra label use in food animals. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc., 235 (5): 528-534.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186