International Journal of Biomedical Engineering and Clinical Science
Volume 4, Issue 2, June 2018, Pages: 48-53
Received: Mar. 8, 2018;
Accepted: Mar. 26, 2018;
Published: May 4, 2018
Views 1715 Downloads 99
Md. Monirul Islam, Department of Pharmacy, State University of Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh
Md. Ibrahim, Department of Pharmacy, Atish Dipankar University of Science and Technology, Dhaka, Bangladesh
Israt Jahan Ira, Department of Pharmacy, Mawlana Bhashani Science and Technology University, Tangail, Bangladesh
Md. Abu Torab, Department of Pharmacy, Atish Dipankar University of Science and Technology, Dhaka, Bangladesh
Md. Zakir Hossen, Department of Pharmacy, Atish Dipankar University of Science and Technology, Dhaka, Bangladesh
Zobayer Hossain, Department of Pharmacy, Atish Dipankar University of Science and Technology, Dhaka, Bangladesh
Health is a right, not privilege. It needs to be delivered with equity. National economic and social developments depend a lot on the state of health services. Bangladesh territory is one of the largest deltas of the world. It is a low lying country and has borders with India on three sides. The country is covered with a network of rivers and canals. Bangladesh mostly comprises floodplain areas, with scattered hills at the eastern and the northern parts. Bangladesh is recognized as the worst victim of global climate change effects. The country manifests all the direct and indirect effects of climate change, such as global warming and sea level rise. As a result, human health has to bear enormous costs. A large number of Bangladeshis, particularly in the rural areas have little access to healthcare facilities. This study was aimed to find out the major public health issues and challenges in Bangladesh. Bangladesh has one of the worst burdens of childhood malnutrition in the world. Communicable diseases are a major cause of death and disability in Bangladesh. Pneumonia and other infections are major causes of death among young children. Unsafe food remains a major threat to public health each year. Different non-communicable diseases — chronic diseases, cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and chronic respiratory diseases — is increasing in Bangladesh as the population becomes more urbanized. The disease burden Bangladesh is further exacerbated by unsanitary living conditions that underscore the poor economic conditions of both urban and rural home dwellers. There are still several issues that Bangladesh health care system is yet to tackle and such issues are preventing the implementation of solutions to the public health issues in Bangladesh.
Md. Monirul Islam,
Israt Jahan Ira,
Md. Abu Torab,
Md. Zakir Hossen,
A Review on Health and Nutrition Status in Bangladesh: Issues and Challenges, International Journal of Biomedical Engineering and Clinical Science.
Vol. 4, No. 2,
2018, pp. 48-53.
Hannum E, Buchmann C. Global Educational Expansion and Socio-Economic Development: An Assessment of Findings from the Social Sciences. World Development, 2005; 33(3): 333–354.
Stark O, and M. R. Rosenzweig, eds. Handbook of Population and Family Economics. North Holland: Elsevier. 2006.
Fortenberry JD, McFarlane M, Bleakley A, Bull S, Fishbein M, Grimley DM, Malotte CK, Stoner BP. Relationships of Stigma and Shame to Gonorrhea and HIV Screening. American Journal of Public Health, 2002; 92(3): 378-381.
Herek GM, Capitanio JP, Widaman KF. HIV-related stigma and knowledge in the United States: prevalence and trends, 1991–1999. American Journal of Public Health, 2002; 92: 371–377.
Byrne P. Stigma of mental illness and ways of diminishing it. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 2000; 6: 65-72.
Anolli L, Pascucci P. Guilt and guilt-proneness, shame and shameproneness in Indian and Italian young adults. Pers Indiv Diff. 2005; 39: 763–773.
Schuster MA, Collins R, Cunningham WE. Perceived discrimination in clinical care in a nationally representative sample of HIV-infected adults receiving health care. Journal of General Internal Medicine. 2005; 20: 807-813.
Kang E, Rapkin BD, Remien RH. Multiple dimensions of HIV stigma and psychological distress among Asians and Pacific Islanders living with HIVillness. AIDS and Behavior. 2005; 9: 145-154.
Vanable PA, Carey MP, Blair DC. Impact of HIVrelated stigma on health behaviors and psychological adjustment among HIV-positive men and women. AIDS and Behavior. 2006; pp. 10.
Parker R, Aggleton P. HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination: A conceptual framework and an agenda for action. Retrieved from www.popcouncil.org/pdfs/horizons/sdcncptlfrmwrk.pdf.;2002.
Bharat S, Aggleton P, Tyrer P. India: HIV and AIDS-related discrimination, stigmatization and denial. Retrieved from http://www.hivpolicy.org/bib/HPP000715.htm; 2001.
Stuber J, Meyer I, Link B. Stigma, Prejudice, discrimination and health. Social Science and Medicine, 2008; 67(3): 251-257.
Deacon H, Stephney I, Prosalendis S. Understanding HIV/AIDS stigma: A theoretical and methodological analysis. Pretoria, South Africa: Human Sciences Research Council. 2005.
UNAIDS. Report on the global HIV/AIDS epidemic. June. Geneva, UNAIDS. 2000.
Pramanik S, Chartier M. Koopman C. HIV/AIDS Stigma and Knowledge among Predominantly Middle-Class High School Students in New Delhi, India. The Journal of communicable diseases. 2006; 38(1):57-69
Garrido-Hernansaiz H, Heylen E, Bharat S, Ramakrishna J, Ekstrand ML. Stigmas, symptom severity and perceived social support predict quality of life for PLHIV in urban Indian context. Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2016; 14(1): 152.
Ssengonzi R. The plight of older persons as caregivers to people infected/affected by HIV/AIDS: evidence from Uganda. Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology, 2007; 22: 339-353.
OE A. HIV related stigmatizing attitude and practice among health care workers in Northern Nigeria. Journal of Infectious Diseases and Immunity, 2011; 3(13): 226-232.
Brown L, Macintyre K, Trujillo L. Interventions to reduce HIV/AIDS stigma: what have we learned? AIDS Education and Prevention. 2003; 15: 46-69.
Klein SJ, Karchner WD, O'Connell DA. Interventions to prevent HIV-related stigma and discrimination: findings and recommendations for public health practice. Journal of Public Health Management and Practice. 2003; 8: 44-53.
Muhammad F, Chowdhury M, Arifuzzaman M, Chowdhury A B M A. Public Health Problems in Bangladesh: Issues and challenges. South East Asia Journal of Public Health. 2016; 6(2): 11-16.
Elford J, Ibrahim F, Bukutu C, Anderson J. HIV-related discrimination reported by people living with HIV in London, UK. AIDS and Behavior. 2008; 12(2): 255-64.
World Health Organization. Bangladesh country data. http://www.who.int/gho/countries/en/ (accessed Dec 2016)
Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Annual Report Book 2013. Atlanta: CDC, 2013.
National Institute of Population Research and Training. Bangladesh demographic and health survey. Dhaka: NIPORT, 2011.
World Health Organization (WHO), United Nations Children’s Fund (UNPFA). Joint monitoring Programme for water supply and sanitation, country file Bangladesh 2013 update. Dhaka: WHO & UNICEF, 2013.
World Health Organization (WHO). Diarrheal disease, Fact sheet. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs330/en/ (accessed Dec 2016).
World Health Organization (WHO). World Health Report 2002: Reducing risks, promoting healthy life. Geneva: WHO, 2003.
World Health Organization (WHO). Non-communicable disease risk factor survey. Dhaka: WHO, 2010.