Parents’ Practices and Barriers in Reducing Aflatoxins Contamination in Complementary Foods for Children in Central Regions of Tanzania
Contamination of complementary foods by aflatoxin is a serious public health threat that requires attention to ensure that proper actions are taken to limit its health effects. A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess parents’ practices and barriers associated with reducing aflatoxins contamination in complementary foods among parents with children aged 6-23 months in central regions of Tanzania. Semi-structured questionnaire (364) respondents and focus group discussion (FGD) with (121) respondents were used to collect data. The information collected included socio-demographic variables, parents’ barriers, and actions to mitigate aflatoxin contamination and its reduction strategies. The results of the fitted model revealed that among proposed predictors of barriers for proper processing of grains/nuts to reduce spoilage/aflatoxin/ mould contamination at home, only a number of children that a participant had was statistically significant. The family with 3-7 children, the estimated odds that the barrier is time consuming rather than costly, was 0.305 times the estimated odds for the family with 1-2 children. This means that parents with 3-7 children were less likely to report that time consumed was the barrier rather than the costs involved in comparison to parents with 1-2 children. On the other hand, the estimated odds for parents with 3-7 children that the barrier reduces food quantity instead of costs, was equal to 2.389 times the estimated odds for parents with 1-2 children. The results of multiple logistic regression model for applying traditional fungicides/pesticides for storing crops showed that respondents aged above 34 years (OR=0.576, 95% CI: 0.342-0.969) were significantly few in applying traditional fungicides/pesticides for storing crops than those respondents aged less or equal to 34 years old. The respondents with no/incomplete primary education (OR=2.872, 95% CI: 1.283-6.427) and primary education (OR=2.256, 95% CI: 1.194-4.264) were significantly more in applying traditional fungicides/pesticides for storing crops than never been to school respondents. FGDs revealed that drying crops before taking them for storage, use of traditional herbs for example ash and mud applied/smeared/sprayed on the grain before and during storage was used to preserve crops/grain against fungi. It was revealed that no any formal or informal education had been provided about fungi contamination, and even control, rather, the respondents were generally preventing (mould) aflatoxins through experience. Therefore, there is a need to educate the community on good agricultural practices for the better food safety and health of the community in general.
Selestin Joseph Ngoma,
Agatha Fabian Ngowi,
Secilia Kapalata Ngwashemi,
Leonard Kamanga Katalambula,
Parents’ Practices and Barriers in Reducing Aflatoxins Contamination in Complementary Foods for Children in Central Regions of Tanzania, Journal of Health and Environmental Research.
Vol. 6, No. 3,
2020, pp. 68-78.
CAST (Council for Agriculture Science and Technology). 2003. Mycotoxins: Risks in plant, animal and human systems. Taskforce Report No. 139. Ames, IA: Council for Agriculture, Science and Technology.
Wild, C. P. and Gong, Y. Y., 2010. Mycotoxins and human disease: A largely ignored global health issue. International Agency for Research on Cancer, 69372 Lyon Cedex 08, France and Molecular Epidemiology Unit, LIGHT Laboratories, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, UK. Carcinog vol. 31 No. 1 pp. 71-82, 2010.
Pitt, J. I. and Miller, J. D., 2017. A concise history of mycotoxin research. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry65: 7021-7033.
Kamala, A., Shirima, C., Jani, B., Bakari, M., Sillo, H., Rusibamayila, N., De Saeger, S., Kimanya, M., Gong, Y. Y., Simba, A., The investigation team. 2018. Outbreak of an acute aflatoxicosis in Tanzania during 2016. Special issue: Mycotoxin in Africa. World Mycotoxin Journal 11 (3): 311-320.
Bennett, J. W. and Klich, M. 2003. Mycotoxins. Clinic Microbiological Review16: 497-516.
Strosnider, H., Hell, K., Henry, S. H., Jeffers, D., Jolly, C., Jolly, P., Kibata, G. N., Lewis, L., Liu, X., Luber, G., McCoy, L., Azziz-Baumgartner, E., Mensah, P., Miraglia, M., Misore, A., Njapau, H., Ong, C. N., Onsongo, M. T. K., Page, S. W., Park, D., Patel, M., Phillips, T., Banziger, M., Pineiro, M., Pronczuk, J., Rogers, H. S., Rubin, C., Sabino, M., Schaafsma, A., Shephard, G., Stroka, J., Wild, C., Williams, J. T., Bhat, R. V., Wilson, D., Breiman, R., Brune, M. N., Decock, K., Dilley, A., Groopman, J. 2006. ‘Workgroup report: Public health strategies for reducing aflatoxin exposure in developing countries’, Environmental Health Perspec114: 1898-1903.
Ephrem, G. 2015. Implication of Aflatoxin Contamination in Agricultural Products American Journal Food Nutrition Vol. 3, No. 1, 12-20.
Magembe, K. S., Mwatawala, M. W., Mamiro, D. P., Chingonikaya, E. E. 2016. Assessment of awareness of mycotoxins infections in stored maize (Zea mays L.) and groundnut (arachis hypogea L.) in Kilosa District, Tanzania. International Journal of Food Contamination 3: 12 DOI 10.1186/s40550-016-0035-5.
Williams, J. H., Phillips, T. D., Jolly, P. E., Stiles, J. K., Jolly, C. M., Aggarwal, D. 2004. Human aflatoxicosis in developing countries: a review of toxicology, exposure, potential health consequences, and interventions. American Journal Clinic Nutrition80: 1106-1122.
WHO (World Health Organisation). 2006. Global Environment Monitoring System-Food Contamination Monitoring and Assessment Programme (GEMS/Food). [http://www.who.int/foodsafety/chem/gems/en/index1.html] site visited on 09/05/2015.
Gong, Y. Y., Turner, P. C., Hall, A. J., Wild, C. P. 2008. Aflatoxin exposure and impaired child growth in West Africa: An unexplored international public health burden? In: Mycotoxins: Detection Methods, Management, Public Health and Agricultural Trade, (Leslie JF, Bandyopadhyay R, Visconti A, editors). Oxfordshire, UK: CAB International p53-65.
Jolly, P. E., Shuaib, F. M., Jiang, Y., Preko, P., Baidoo, J., Stiles, J. K., Wang, J. S., Phillips, T. D., Williams, J. H. 2011. Association of high viral load and abnormal liver function with high aflatoxin B1-albumin adduct levels in HIV-positive Ghanaians: preliminary observations. Food Additive Contaminants Part A 28: 1224-1234.
Jolly, P. E., Inusah, S., Lu, B., Ellis, W. O., Nyarko, A., Phillips, T. D., Williams, J. H. 2013. Association between high aflatoxin B1 levels and high viral load in HIV-positive people. World Mycotoxin Journal6: 255-261.
Joens, L. A., Pier, A. C., Cutlip, R. C. 1981. Effects of aflatoxin composition on the clinical course of swine dysentery. American Journal of Veterinary Research 42: 1170-1172.
Fernandez, A., Belio, R., Ramos, J. J., Sanz, M. C., Saez, T. 1997. Aflatoxins and their metabolites in the tissues, faeces and urine from lambs feeding on an aflatoxin-contaminated diet. Journal of Sciences, Food and Agriculture 74: 161-168.
Kang’ethe, E. K. and Lang’a, K. A. 2009. Aflatoxin B1 and M1 contamination of animal feeds and milk from urban centers in Kenya. African Health Sciences 9: 218-226.
Caloni, F and Cortinovis, C. 2010. Toxicological effects of aflatoxins in horses. The Veterinary Journal doi: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2010.06.002.
Cotty, P. J. and Ramon, J. G. 2007. Influences of climate on aflatoxin producing fungi and aflatoxin contamination. International Journal Food Microbiology 119: 109-115.
(NTP) National Toxicology Program. 2011. Aflatoxins; Known to be human carcinogens, Report on Carcinogens Twelfth Edition, Department of Human and Human Services, CAS No. 1402-68-2.
Kamala, A., Kimanya, M., Haesaert, G., Tiisekwa, B., Madege, R., Degraeve, S., Cyprian, C., De Meulenaer, B. 2016. Local post-harvest practices associated with aflatoxin and fumonisin contamination of maize in three agro ecological zones of Tanzania. Food Additive Contaminants Part A 33: 551-559.
CDC (Center for Disease Control and Prevention). 2004. Outbreak of aflatoxin poisoning in eastern and central provinces, Kenya, January-June 2004. MMWR 53 (34): 790-793.
Probst, C., Bandyopadhyay., R, Cotty, J. 2013. Diversity of aflatoxin-producing fungi and their impact on food safetyin sub-Saharan Africa. International Journal Food Microbiology 174 (2014): 113-122.
De Koe, W. J. 1999. Regulations of the European Union for mycotoxins in foods. ArhHig Rada Toksikol 50: 37-46.
Creppy, E. E. 2002. Update of survey, regulation and toxic effects of mycotoxins in Europe. Toxicol Letter 28 (127): 19-28.
CEC (Commission of the European Communities). 2006. European Commission Regulation 1881/2006.19.12.2006. Bruxelles: Official Journal of the European Commission L364/5-24.
EMAN, (European Mycotoxins Awareness Network). 2012. Limits for Aflatoxin M1 by Countries, Mycotoxins Legislation Worldwide. Available at: http://www.mycotoxins.org/.
IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 2002. Some traditional herbal medicines, some mycotoxins, naphthalene and styrene. IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans (vol. 82). Lyon, France: World Health Organization, p. 1-556.
IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer).1993. Chemicals, groups of chemicals, complex mixtures, physical and biological agents and exposure circumstances to be evaluated in Future IARC Monogr, Report of an ad-hoc Working Group (IARC intern. Rep. No. 93/005).
IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 2012. Agents Classified by the IARC Monogr. Vol. 1, No. 104.
Kamala, A., Ortiz, J., Kimanya, M. E., Haesaert, G., Donoso, S., Tiisekwa, B., De Meulenaer, B. 2015. Multiple mycotoxin co-occurrence in maize grown in three agro-ecological zones of Tanzania. Food Contaminant 54: 208-215.
Kimanya, M. E., De Meulenaer, B., Tiisekwa, B., Ndomondo-Sigonda, M., Devlieghere, F., Van Camp, J. 2008. Co-occurrence of fumonisins with aflatoxins in home-stored maize for human consumption in rural villages of Tanzania. Food Additive Contaminants Part A Chemical Analytical Control Exposure Risk Assessment 25: 1353-1364.
Kimanya, M. E., De Meulenaer, B., Tiisekwa, B., Ugullum, C., Devlieghere, F., Van Camp, J., Samapundo, S., Kolsteren, P. 2009. Fumonisins exposure from freshly harvested and stored maize and its relationship with traditional agronomic practices in Rombo district, Tanzania. Food Additive Contaminants Part A. 26: 1199-1208.
Shirima, C. P., Kimanya, M. E., Routledge, M. N., Srey, C., Kinabo, J. L., Humpf, H. U., Wild, C. P., Tu, Y. K, Gong, Y. Y. 2015. A prospective study of growth and biomarkers of exposure to aflatoxin and fumonisin during early childhood in Tanzania. Environmental Health Perspectives 123: 173-178.
Magoha, H., Kimanya, M., De Meulenaer, B., Roberfroid, D., Lachat, C., Kolsteren, P. 2014b. Risk of dietary exposure to aflatoxins and fumonisins in infants less than 6 months of age in Rombo, Northern Tanzania. Maternal Child Nutrition Doi: 10.1111/mcn.12155.
Magoha, H., De Meulenaer, B., Kimanya, M., Hipolite, D., Lachat, C., Kolsteren, P. 2014a. Fumonisin B1 contamination in breast milk and its exposure in infants under six months of age in Rombo, Northern Tanzania. Food Chemical Toxicological 74: 112-116.
Buguzi, S. 2016. ‘Tanzania: Food poisoning linked to 14 deaths in two regions. The Citizen [online], 20 July 2016. [http://allafrica.com/stories/201607290685.html] site visited on 18/09/2016.
Magnani, R. 1997. Sampling Guide.
Dean, A. G., Dean, J. A., Coulombier, D., Burton, A. H., Brendel, K. A., Smith, D. C., Dicker, R. C., Sullivan, K. M., Robert, F., Fagan, R. F. 1996. Epi Info, Version 6 A Word-Processing, Database, and Statistics Program for Public Health on IBM-compatible Microcomputers Program design.
Jolly, C. M., Bayard, B., Awuah, R. T., Fialor, S. C. and Williams, J. T. (2009). Examining the structure of awareness and perceptions of groundnuts aflatoxin among Ghanaian health and agricultural professionals and its influence on their actions. Journal of Socio-Economics 38: 280-287.
Krueger, R. A. and Casey, M. A. 2015. Focus groups; A practical guide for applied research, 5th Edition. India, SAGE Publications Asia-Pacific Pte. Ltd.
Hancock, B. 1998. Trent Focus for Research and Development in Primary Health Care. An Introduction to Qualitative Research. Division of General Practice, Focus Group.
Ngoma, S., Tiisekwa, B., Mwaseba, D., Kimanya, M. 2016. Awareness of Aflatoxin Health Risks among Parents with Children Aged Between 6-23 Months in Central Tanzania. International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences 5 (6): 429-436.
Ngoma, S. J., Kimanya, M., Tiisekwa, B. and Mwaseba, D. 2017. Perception and Attitude of Parents towards Aflatoxins Contamination in Complementary Foods and Its Management in Central Tanzania. The Journal of Middle East and North Africa Sciences, 3 (3): 6-21. (P-ISSN 2412-9763)-(e-ISSN 2412-8937). www.jomenas.org.
Ngongi, A. M. 2013. Food Insecurity and Coping Strategies of Farm Households in Kahama District, Tanzania. A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts in Rural Development of Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania.
Babatunde, R. O., Omotosho, O. A., Ololunsanya, E. O., Owoloki, G. M. 2008. Determinants of vulnerability to food insecurity: A gender analysis of farming household in Nigeria. Journal of Agricultural Economics 63 (1): 116-125.
Idrisa, Y. L., Gwary, M. M. and Shehu, H. 2008. Analysis of food security status among farming households. Journal of Tropic Agriculture, Food and Environmental Extensions7 (3): 199-205.
Chanetsa, J., Vhurmuku, E., Tarakidzwa, A. 2003. Zimbabwe Urban Areas food Security and Vulnerability Assessment; Ministry of Agriculture- National Early Warning Unit, September 2003, Harare, Zimbabwe. p. 33.
Dosman, D. M., Adamowicz, W. L., Hrudey, S. E. 2001. Socioeconomic determinants of health and food safety-related risk perceptions. Risk Analysis 21: 307-317.
Baker, G. A. 2003. Food safety and fear: factors affecting consumer response to food safety risk. International Food and Agribusiness Management Review 6: 1-11.
Barago, D. K. 2013. Factors Affecting Household Food Security: A Case Study of Mtwara Rural District-Mtwara Region. A Dissertation Submitted in Partial Fulfillment for the Requirements for Degree of Master of Arts in Social Work of the Open University of Tanzania.
Amani, H. K. R. 2004. Agricultural Development and Food Security in Sub Saharan Africa., Tanzania Country Report. Economic and Social Research Foundation (ESRF) Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. August 2004. 31pp, 45pp.