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Contaminants of Domestic Rural Spring Water Sources in Bushenyi-Ishaka Municipality, Western Uganda
Journal of Health and Environmental Research
Volume 6, Issue 3, September 2020, Pages: 51-60
Received: May 28, 2020; Accepted: Jun. 15, 2020; Published: Jul. 4, 2020
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Solomon Adomi Mbina, Department of Public Health, School of Allied Health Sciences, Kampala International University Western Campus, Ishaka, Bushenyi, Uganda
Galimaka Wilson, Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, School of Allied Health Sciences, Kampala International University Western Campus, Ishaka, Bushenyi, Uganda
Ejike Daniel Eze, Department of Physiology, Faculty of Biomedical Sciences, Kampala International University Western Campus, Ishaka, Bushenyi, Uganda; Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Kabale University, Kabale, Uganda
Theophilus Pius, Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, School of Allied Health Sciences, Kampala International University Western Campus, Ishaka, Bushenyi, Uganda
Ssebuufu Robinson, Faculty of Clinical Medicine and Dentistry, Kampala International University- Teaching Hospital, Ishaka, Bushenyi, Uganda
Adam Moyosore Afodun, Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Biomedical Sciences, Kampala International University Western Campus, Ishaka, Bushenyi, Uganda
Iliya Ezekiel, Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Pure and Applied Sciences, Federal University, Wukari, Taraba State, Nigeria
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Globally, water-borne diseases have continued to challenge the health conditions of both developed and developing countries. In Uganda, most water-borne diseases are known to be the leading causes of serious health burden among the inhabitants. The study objectives were to characterize microscopic isolates using biochemical tests as well as identify the possible sources of contamination of spring water which is the commonest source of water used by rural inhabitants for domestic activities in Bushenyi-Ishaka Municipality, Bushenyi district, Western Uganda. Samples of spring water were collected from all accessible spring water sources in Bushenyi-Ishaka Municipality, Western Uganda. A total of 48 spring water samples were collected using 500 ml sterile glass bottles. The sources of contamination of the spring water samples were determined using a Sanitary Inspection Checklist which was designed using some standard response factors from a collection of standard reference checklists for drinking water quality assessment. Distribution of isolates and indicator pathogens of fecal contamination recovered from positive samples shows 77.8% from Nyakabirizi, 75% from Ishaka and 52.63% from Central divisions. Among the isolates, Pseudomonas spp and Shigella spp appeared more frequent with overall percentage of (52.63%) and (45.83%) whereas, Klebsiella, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were found in (31.25%), (12.5%) and (6.25%) respectively. Sanitary inspections showed that springs in Ishaka Division posed a much higher risk (66.7%) of bacterial contamination compared to what was observed in Central (58.3%) and Nyakabirizi (58.3%) Divisions. All the sampled water sources were contaminated hence they posed substantial risk to users in the communities. Regular water examination and quality control including microbial assessment of all water sources should be maintained in the three Divisions of the Bushenyi-Ishaka Municipality, Western Uganda.
Bacteriological, Bushenyi, Contamination, Ishaka, Isolates, Municipality
To cite this article
Solomon Adomi Mbina, Galimaka Wilson, Ejike Daniel Eze, Theophilus Pius, Ssebuufu Robinson, Adam Moyosore Afodun, Iliya Ezekiel, Contaminants of Domestic Rural Spring Water Sources in Bushenyi-Ishaka Municipality, Western Uganda, Journal of Health and Environmental Research. Vol. 6, No. 3, 2020, pp. 51-60. doi: 10.11648/j.jher.20200603.12
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This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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