Growth, Protein Content, Yield and Yield Components of Malt Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Varieties in Response to Seeding Rate at Sinana District, Southeast Ethiopia
International Journal of Applied Agricultural Sciences
Volume 6, Issue 4, July 2020, Pages: 61-71
Received: Mar. 20, 2020; Accepted: Apr. 28, 2020; Published: Jun. 20, 2020
Views 172      Downloads 110
Senait Bekele Senait Bekele, Oromia Seed Enterprise, Bale Branch, Bale-Robe, Ethiopia
Tarekegn Yoseph, Schools of Plant and Horticulture Sciences, College of Agriculture, Hawassa University, Hawassa, Ethiopia
Tewodros Ayalew, Schools of Plant and Horticulture Sciences, College of Agriculture, Hawassa University, Hawassa, Ethiopia
Article Tools
Follow on us
Identifying optimum seeding rate for crop varieties is an important agronomic practice to improve the productivity and the quality of the produces. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of seeding rate on the growth, protein content and yield performance of malt barley varieties grown under rain-fed conditions at Sinnana district, southeast Ethiopia. The treatments studied include five malt barley varieties (Singitan, Bahati, IBON174/3, HB - 1964 and Holker) and four seed rates (100, 125, 150, and 175 kg ha-1). The experiments were arranged using factorial randomized complete block design with three replicates. The results revealed significant differences among the varieties and seeding rates for days to 50% heading, 90% physiological maturity, plant height, productive tiller (m2), 1000-kernel weight, grain protein content and grain yield (kg ha-1). Among the barely varieties, Holker recorded the longest days to 50% heading (75.0 days) and plant height (91.79cm). The heavier 1000-kernel weight was produced from Singitan and Bahati (43.52gm) and (43.30gm) varieties, respectively. Increment in seed rate from 100–175 kg ha-1 decreased days to 50% heading by 6% and thousand kernels weight by 23.51%. Furthermore, the interaction effect of variety and seeding rate showed significant differences on productive tiller, harvest index, grain protein content and grain yield. The use of 150 kg ha-1 seed rate for variety Singitan resulted in higher number of productive tillers (1017.33 per m2), thousand kernels weight (43.52g), grain yield (3.63 t ha-1), Hectoliter weight (62.98 kg ha-1) and lower protein content (10.7%). As per the result of the partial budget analysis, higher benefit also recorded from the use of variety Singitan with a seed rate of 150 kg ha-1. From the results of this study it can be concluded that, better crop performance, higher grain yield and economic return achieved from the combinations of variety Singitan, Bahati and HB-1964 with a seed rate of 150 kg ha-1 and variety IBON174/3 and Holker with seed rate of 125 kg ha-1.
Protein Content, Seed Rate, Thousand-kernel Weight, Varieties and Yield
To cite this article
Senait Bekele Senait Bekele, Tarekegn Yoseph, Tewodros Ayalew, Growth, Protein Content, Yield and Yield Components of Malt Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Varieties in Response to Seeding Rate at Sinana District, Southeast Ethiopia, International Journal of Applied Agricultural Sciences. Vol. 6, No. 4, 2020, pp. 61-71. doi: 10.11648/j.ijaas.20200604.12
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Akalu Gebru. 2018. Evaluation of grain yield performance and quality parameter of malt barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) variety in Eastern Amhara Region, Ethiopia. Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 2333–6668.
Ali M. 2010. Improvement in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Yield by manipulating seed rate and row spacing in vehari zone. Adaptive Research Farm, Vehari. Journal of Animal and Plant sciences, 20 4): 225–230.
Amare Aleminew and Adane Legas. 2015. Grain quality and yield response of malt barley varieties to nitrogen fertilizer on brown soils of Amhara region Ethiopia. Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 11 (3): 135–143.
Anonymous. 2012. Progress report of all India coordinated wheat and barley improvement project 2011-12. Barley Network. Directorate of Wheat Research, Karnal, India.
AMF (Assela Malt Factory). 2012. Current annual beer production capacity and malt requirement of Ethiopian breweries 2012/2013. Assela, Ethippia.
Assefa W., Yemane N., Dawit H. 2015. Planting density and nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization effect on different bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes in Southern Tigray, Ethiopia. World Journal of Science and Research, 3 (2): 20–28.
Asfaw Z. 2000. The Barleys of Ethiopia. Stephen B. Brush (ed). Genes in the Field: On farm Conservation of Crop Diversity, IPGRI/IDRC, Pp. 77-109.
Arabi M. I., Jawhar M., Al-Safadi B., MirAli N. 2004. Yield responses of barley to leaf stripe (Pyrenophora graminea) under experimental conditions in southern Syria. Journal of Phytopathology, 152: 519–523.
Bavec M., Bavec F., Varga B. and Kovacevic V. 2002. Relationships among yield, it’s quality and yield components in winter wheat (triticum aestivum L.) cultivars affected by seeding rates. Slovenia Journal of Agriculture, 53 (3): 143–151.
Biruk Gezahegn and Demelash Kefale. 2016. Effect of Nitrogen Fertilizer Level on Grain Yield and Quality of Malt Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Varieties in Malga Woreda, 52, 8–16.
Bleidere M. 2008. Genetic and environmental effect on the grain quality of spring barley. Latvian Journal of Agronomy, 11: 33–39.
Brewing and Malting Barley Research Institute. 2010. Quality factors in malting barley. A Brewing and Malting Barley Research Institute Publication. 1510.
Burnett P. A. 1984. Preface. in: P. A. Burnett (ed). World Perspectives on Barley Yellow Dwarf. Proceedings of a Workshop. CIMMYT, Mexico.
Campbell C. and Madden. L. 1990. Introduction to Plant Disease Epidemiology. John Wileey and Sons New York.
Costa J. M. and Bodlero G. 2001. Annals applied biology. 139 (1): 137-143.
CSA (Central Statistical Agency). 2016. Agricultural sample survey: area and production of major crops, meher season. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Dagnachew Yirgu. 1967. Index of Plant Diseases in Ethiopia. College of Agriculture Haile Sellassie Imperial University Experimental Station Bulletin, No. 30: 1–67.
David E., Kevin R. and Anthony K. 2014. The influence of malt quality on malt brewing and barley quality on barley brewing with ondea pro, compared by small-scale analysis Journal of the American Society of Brewing Chemists, 72 (3): 192–207.
Doffing S. M. and Knight. 1992. Heading synchrony and yield components of barley Grown in Subarctic environments. Crop Science, 32: 1377–1380.
Donald C. M. and Hamblin J. 1976. The biological yield and harvesting index of cereal as agronomic and plant breading criteria. Advance in Agronomy, 28: 156–163.
ERCA (Ethiopian Revenues and Customs Authority). 2014.
Ethiopia-Barley-Business-Case Investor Presentation. 2012. The Business Case for Investing in Malting Plant in Ethiopia, Investor Presentation. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization). 2014. Food Balance Sheets. FAOSTAT Rome.
Froment. 2003. Barley quality and grain size homogeneity for malting. Agronomic effects on varieties. Project Rep. No. 320. Home Grown Cereals Authority, Stoneleigh Park, Kenilworth, Warwickshire, UK.
Fox G. P., Panozzo J. F., Li C. D., Lance R. C. M., Inkerman P. A. and Henry R. J. 2006. Molecular basis of barley quality. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 54: 1081–1101.
Gafaar N. A. 2007. Response of some bread wheat varieties grown under different levels of Planting density and nitrogen fertilizer. Minufiya Journal of Agriculture, 32: 165–183.
Geleta B., Atak M., Baenziger P. S., Nelson L. A., Baltenesperger D. D., Eskridge K. M., Shipman M. J. and Shelton D. R. 2002. Seeding rate and genotype effect on agronomic performance and end-use quality of winter wheat. Journal of Crop Science, 42: 827–832.
Glen P. F., Kelly A., Poulson D., Inkerm A. and Henry R. 2006. Selecting for increased barley grain size Journal of cereal science, 43 (2): 198–208.
Hamid E., Taj F. H., Bakht J., Shah A. W. and Shad A. 2002. Effect of different planting dates, seed rates and nitrogen levels on wheat. Asian Journal of Plant Science, 1: 502-506 Hazelton, P. and Murphy B. 2007. Interpreting Soil Test Results, CSIRO Publishing, 150 Oxford Street Collingwood VIC 3066, Australia.
Hussanein M. S. 2001. Effect of variety and nitrogen levels on growth, yield and yield components of wheat in Newly Cultivated land. Egyptian. Journal of Agronomy, 23: 111–131.
IGC (International Grains Council). 2013. five-year global supply and demand projections. 10 December 2013.
Iqbal, Akbar and Ali. 2010. Effect of seed rate and row spacing on yield and yield components of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Adaptive Research Farm, Vehari, Pakistan. Journal of Agricultural Research, 48 (2): 151–156.
Jemal Abdulkerim, Tamado Tana and Firdissa Eticha. 2015. Response of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties to seeding rates at Kulumsa, south eastern Ethiopia. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences, 14 (2): 50–58.
Kavitha G., Dhindsa G. S., Singh S. and Singh J. 2009. Stability analysis of yield and its components in malt barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) genotypes. Journal of Crop Improvement, 36 (1): 29–34.
Kazimierz N. 2010. Effect of sowing rate on yields and grain quality of new cultivars of spring Department of Cereal Crop Production Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation–National Research Institute in Puławyul. Czartoryskich 8, 24-100 Puławy, Poland Barley. Polish Journal of Agronomy, 3.
Khan M. A., Anwar A. and khtar M. 2001. Effect of seed rate on wheat yield under different sowing dates and row spacing. Journal Agricultural Research, 39 (3-4): 223–229.
Kifle Zerga, Firew Mekbib, Tadesse Dessalegn. 2016. Estimation of association among growth and yield related traits in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Genotypes at Gurage Zone, Ethiopia. Journal Plant Breed Crop Science, 3: 123–134.
Krstanović V., Lalić A., Kosović I., Velić, N., Mastanjević, K., Mastanjević, K. 2016. A survey of total β-glucan content in Croatian barley varieties. Cereal Research, 44 (4): 650–657.
Lake Mekonnen. 2018. Effects of seed and n rate on grain yield and yield components of barley southern Agricultural Research Institute, Worabe Agricultural Research Center, Department of crop Science. Journal of Natural Sciences Research, 3 (85): 603–614.
Leisrumaite A. and Paplauskiene V. 2005. Genetic resources of malt barley: Screening for yield stability and grain malt quality traits.
Liu Z., Simon R., Ellwood, Richard P., Oliver and Timothy L. Friesen. 2011. Pyrenophora teres: profile of an increasingly damaging barley pathogen. Molecular Plant Pathology, 12 (1): 1–19.
Mastanjević, Kristina, Lenart L., Gordana Šimić, Lalić A. 2018. Malting quality indicators of Croatian dual-purpose barley varieties. Journal of Food Science Technology, 9 (2) 145–151.
McKenzie R. H., Middleton A. B. and Bremer E. 2005. Fertilization, seeding date, and seeding rate for malting barley yield and quality. Southern Alberta Canadian Journal Plant Science, 85: 603–614.
McKenzie R. H., Bremer E., Middleton A. B., Pfiffner P. G. and Woods S. A. 2011. Optimum seeding date and rate for irrigated cereal and oilseed crops. Southern Alberta Canadian Journal Plant Science, 91: 293–303.
Mehrvar M. R. and Asadi H. 2006. Agronomical and economical assessment of planting methods and seeding rates in irrigated wheat. Journal of Agronomy, 5 (4): 626–633.
Melle Tilahun and Tesfaye Jorgi. 2014. Phenotype performance and grain yield stability of malting barley Genotype across North western Ethiopia. Proceeding of 6th and 7th annual and regional on completed crop research activity (ARARI) February 2014, Amhara Region Agricultural Research Institute. 96–100.
Minale Liben, Alemayehu Assefa and Tilahun Tadesse. 2011. Grain yield and malting quality of barley in relation to nitrogen application at mid and high altitude in Northwest Ethiopia. Journal of Science and Development, 1 (1): 75–88.
Molinacane J. L., Fra Mon P., Salcedo G., Aragoncillo C., and Garcia-Olmedo F. 2001. Morocco as a Possible Domestication Centre for Barley: Biochemical and Agro morphological Evidence of Applied Genetics, 73: 531–536.
Muluken Bantayehu. 2013. Study on malting barley genotypes under diverse agro ecologies of north western Ethiopia. Adet Agricultural Research Center. Bahirdar, Ethiopia.
Nanak C., Vishwakarma O. P., Verma and Kumar M. 2008. Worth of Genetic Parameters to Sort-out New Elite Barley Lines over Heterogeneous Environments. Barley genetics newsletter, 38: 10–13.
National Barley Research Program (NBRP). 2016. The Barley Commodity Research Strategy of Fifteen Years (2016-2030).
Nefo Kadir, Geleto Tilahun and Aman Alo. 2008. Fifteen years achievements: Oromia Agricultural Research Institute, sinana Agricultural Research centre, bale- Robe, southeast Ethiopia.
O’Donovan J. T., Clayton G. W., Grant C. A., Harker K. N., Turkington T. K., and Lupwayi N. Z. 2008. Eff ect of nitrogen rate and placement and seeding rate on barley productivity and wild oat fecundity in a zero tillage system. Crop Science, 48: 1569–1574.
O'Donovan J., Turkingtonb T., Edneyc M., Claytond G., McKenziee R., Patriciaf P. E., Lafondg G. P., Granth C. A., Brandti S., Harkerj K. N., Johnsonk E. N and May W. E., 2011. Seed rate, nitrogen rate, and cultivar effects on malting barley. Crop Agricultural Journal, 103 (3): 709–716.
Otteson B. N., Mergoum M. and Ransom J. K. 2007. Seeding rate and nitrogen management Effect on spring wheat yield and yield components. Agronomy Journal, 99: 1615.
Pettersson C. G, Franknow Lindburg B. E. 2006. Reappraisal of methods of application of nutrient at sowing on yield, grain and protein content economy of malt barley.
Roland. 2011. Important raw materials quality parameters and their influence on beer production. Brewing Conference, Bangkok.
Ryan J., Abdel Monem and Amri A. 2009. Nitrogen fertilizer response of some barley Varieties in semi-arid conditions. Morocco Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, 11: 227–236.
SAS (statistical analysis system). 2002. SAS for windows, release 9.0. SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, NC, USA.
Seleiman M. F., Ibrahim M. E., Abdel-Aal and Zahran G. A. 2010. Effect of seeding rates on productivity, technological and rheological characteristics of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). International Journal of Current Research, 4: 075–080.
Schulthess U. 1992. The impact of Verti soil management systems on wheat production in the Ethiopian high lands. Ph. D. Thesis, Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich.
Shahzad M A., Khan M. M, Ehsanullah and Ahmad M. 2007. Effect of sowing dates and seed treatment on grain yield and quality of wheat. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Science, 44 (4): 581–583.
Singh N. P. and Singh R. A. 2002. Scientific crop production, press Graphics, Delhi-28, 1st (e. d) India.
Sukram P., Tejveer S. and Ramesh B. 2010. Estimation of Genetic Parameters in Barley (Hordeumvulgare L.); Journal of Crop Improvement (Abs.) 37 (1): 52–56.
Stewart R. B. and Dagnachew Yirgu. 1987. Index of Plant Diseases in Ethiopia. College of Agriculture Haile Sellassie Imperial University Experimental Station Bulletin, No. 30: 1–67.
Soomro U. A., Ur Rahman M., Odhano E. A., Gul S., Tareen A. Q. 2009. Effects of Sowing Method and Seed Rate on Growth and Yield of Wheat (Triticum aestivum). World Journal of Agricultural Sciences 5 (2): 159–162.
Toaima S. E., El-Hofi A. A. and Ashoush H. 2000. Yield and technological characteristics of some wheat varieties as affected by N- fertilization and seed rates. Mansoura University. Journal of Agricultural Science, 25: 2449–2467.
Worku Awdie. 2008. Effects of nitrogen and seed rates on yield and yield components of bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in yelmana densa district, northwestern Ethiopia. M. Sc. Thesis. The School of Graduate Studies of Haramaya University. Harar, Ethiopia.
Yosef G. H., Kebede T., Senait W. 2011. Achievements of food barley breeding research for low moisture stressed environments of northeast Ethiopia. Barley Research.
Zewdie Bishaw, Paul C. Struik and Anthony J. G. 2014. Assessment of on-farm diversity of wheat varieties and landraces: evidence from farmer’s field in Ethiopia. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 9 (38): 2948–2963.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186