Investigating Language Learning Context Influence: An Approach to Iranian EFL Students’ Critical Thinking Ability
Investigating to which extent language learning context affect Iranian EFL students’ critical thinking, this study was conducted to clarify the relationship between the variables. To achieve this purpose 90 EFL students in upper intermediate level of Payamnoor University selected, and equally divided to two groups of 45 person, the experimental group (n=45) with modern context of language learning by a web 2.0 environment on the internet and control group (n=45) with traditional context of language learning in regular classes. Sandra Lee M.C. Kay’s Researching Second Language Classroom book, published in 2008, was given to the both groups during 10 session of 120 minutes of study as a material. Pretest/posttest assessments and statistical package of social science (SPSS) t-test analyzed procedures clarified that experimental group’s language learner have a stronger critical thinking ability than control group ones. Confirming positive relation between language learning context and critical thinking ability of EFL learners, the results also show a strong willing of students to use modern, technological, more accessible, and new ways of learning.
Saeid Malek Mohammadi,
Investigating Language Learning Context Influence: An Approach to Iranian EFL Students’ Critical Thinking Ability, International Journal of Applied Linguistics and Translation.
Vol. 1, No. 4,
2015, pp. 61-67.
Aqui. Y. (2005). Characteristics of an Online Learner. International Journal of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning, 2 (4), 479.
Aydin, C. S. (2005). Turkish mentors’ perception of roles, competencies and resources for online teaching. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, 6 (3), 58–80.
Bahrani, T. (2011). Some aspects of computer assisted language learning. Language in India, 11(9), 271-278.
Berge, Z. L. (1995). The role of the online instructor/facilitator. Brazil Computer Conference in Brasilia.
Bonk, C. J., Kirkley, J. R., Hara, N., & Dennen, N. (2001). Finding the instructor in post-secondary online learning: Pedagogical, social, managerial, and technological locations. In J. Stephenson Teaching and learning online: New pedagogies for new technologies (pp. 76-97). London: Kogan Page.
Brown, H. D. (1994). Principles of language learning and teaching (3rd Edition.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall Regents.
Cambridge advanced dictionary. (2010). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Cuban, L. (2001). Oversold & underused computers in the classroom. San Francisco State University.
Cumming, A. H. (2000). TOEFL 2000 writing framework: A working paper. Princeton, N.J: Educational Testing Service.
Culp, K. M. (2003). A retrospective on twenty years of educational technology policy. United States. Department of education. P.9.
Ennis, R. H. (1989). Critical thinking and subject specify: clarification and heeded research. Educational researcher. 18(3), 4-10.
Fry, K. (2000). Forum focus and Overview. The business of E-learning: Bringing your organization in the knowledgeEconomy. Telcam Group, University of Technology, Sydney.
Gill, Deborah. (2006). Effects of Technology on Second Language Learning. Journal of College Teaching & Learning, 3(2),19-28.
Gray, L., Thomas, N., and Lewis, L. (2010a). Educational Technology in U.S. Public Schools. Fall 2008 (NCES 2010–034). U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Gray, L., Thomas, N., and Lewis, L. (2010b). Teachers’ Use of Educational Technology in U.S.
Public Schools. (NCES 2010-040). National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC.
Ashraf, H., Khosravani, M., & Ganji Khoosf, S. (2014). Does Electronic Homeworking Affect EFL Learners’ Critical Thinking, International Journal of Foreign Language Teaching in the Islamic World, Vol. 2, No. 1 (201 4) 1 0-17 Hamilton, R., Richards, C., & Sharp, C. (2001). An examination of e-learning and e-books.
RetrievedDecember12,2003,from www.dcs.napier.ac.uk/~mm/socbytes/jun2001/Jun2001_9.htm Harirchi, Sh. (2010). The relationship between critical thinking and process oriented approach to writing Iranian EFL learners. Islamic Azad University, Science and Research campus Press. 11, 29-31.
Hussein, G. (2010). The attitudes of under graduated students toward motivation and technology in a foreign language classroom. Turkey Linguistics University Press, Istanbul. 14-22.
Inan, F. A., & Lowther, D. L. (2009). Factors affecting technology integration in K- 12 classrooms: a path model. Educational Technology Research and Development, 58(2), 137–154.
Inan, F.A., Lowther, D.L. (2010). Laptops In The K-12 Classrooms: Exploring Factors Impacting Instructional Use. ELSEVIER, 55, 937-944. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2011.03.031, (2013).
IVERSON, K. (2008). Engaging the e-learner: Interaction is not education. Learning Solutions e-Magazine. Retrieved March 25, 2008 Through Personal Subscription to The E-Learning Guild.
Jonassen, D. H. (1997). Instructional design models for well-structured and ill-structured problem-solving learning outcomes. Educational Technology Research and Development, 45, 65-94.
Kevin, R. P., & Joseph, T. C. (2007). Wiki as a teaching tool. Interdisciplinary Journal of Knowledge and Learning Objects 3, 57-72.
Khamesian, M. (2008). The relationship between critical thinking skills and writing in EFL Engineering learners. Islamic Azad University Science and Research Campus, M. A. Thesis. Tehran: Iran.
Khandaghi, A. (2012). Critical thinking disposition: A neglected loop of humanities curriculum in higher education. Cypriot Journal of Educational Sciences, 7(1), 1-13.
Lee Mc kay, S. (2008). Researching second language classroom, London,England, Taylor & Francis e-Library publication, (Pp.192).
McDade, S. A. (1995). Case study pedagogy to advance critical thinking. Teaching Psychology, 22(1), 9-10.
Pardison, B. (2000). Comments on Dwight Atkinson's "A critical approach to critical thinking in TESOL":A case for critical thinking in the English language classroom. TESOL Quarterly, 32(1), 119-122.
Paul, R. (1993). Critical thinking: What every person needs to survive in a rapidly changing Thinking world. Santa Rosa, CA: Foundation for Critical Thinking.
Paul, R. & Elder, L. (2002). Tools for Taking Charge of your Learning and your Life. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Persico, D. & Pozzi, F. (Eds, 2011) Techniques for Fostering Collaboration in Online Learning Communities. Theoretical and practical perspectives, Information Science Reference, Hershey:NY, pp.397. ISBN 978-1-61692-898-8 Hardcover, Disponibile Anche in e-book.
Rathakrishnan, M. & Umar, I. N. (2010). Wiki as a collaborative tool in education: A case study.
AACE Asia Pacific Global Learn Conference Proceedings, 17 (1), 348-35.
Rideout, V. J., Foehr, U. G., & Roberts, D. F. (2010). Generation M2: Media in the lives of 8-18 year olds. Menlo Park, CA: Kaiser Family Foundation. Retrieved June 5, 2010, from: http://www.kff.org/entmedia/upload/8010.pdf Schafersman. (1991). an introduction to critical thinking. Retrieved March 16, 2010 from: www.freeenquiry/criticalthinking.html
Scriven, M. & Paul, R. (2003). Defiing critical thinking. Retrieved from: http://www. criticalthinking.org/University/univclass/Defi ning.html(2011) Stevick, E. W. (1989). Success with foreign language. London: Prentice Hall.
Stratham, D. S., & Torell, C. R. (1996). Computers in the classroom: The impact of technology on student learning. Boise, ID: Army Research Institute.
Swain, M. (2005). The output hypothesis: Theory and research. In E. Hinkle (Ed.) the Handbook of Research in Second Language Teaching and Learning (pp. 471-483). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Umar, A. (2010). Technology in TEFL innovating and improve. Retrieved February 21 , 2013 from: http://umararif.wordpress.com.
Uzunboylu, H., Bicen, H., & Cavus, N. (2011). The efficient virtual learning environment: a case study of web 2.0 tools and Windows Lives paces. Computers & Education, 56(3), 720-726.
Van-Waes, L., Van-Weijen, D., & Leijten, M. (2014). Learning to write in an online writing center: The effect of learning styles on the writing process. Computers & Education, 73, 60-71.
Vygotsky, L. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes.
Moscow: Moscow State University.