Effect of Inoculum Density of Stromatinia cepivora on the Ability of Sclerotial Mycoparasites to Suppress White Rot in Garlic
Journal of Diseases and Medicinal Plants
Volume 4, Issue 2, April 2018, Pages: 48-58
Received: Apr. 26, 2018; Accepted: May 15, 2018; Published: May 29, 2018
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Authors
Ibrahim Elshahawy, Plant Pathology Department, National Research Centre, Giza, Egypt
Nehal Saied, Plant Pathology Department, National Research Centre, Giza, Egypt
Farid Abd El Kareem, Plant Pathology Department, National Research Centre, Giza, Egypt
Ahmed Morsy, Plant Pathology Department, National Research Centre, Giza, Egypt
Mahmoud Hozien, Agronomy Department, National Research Centre, Giza, Egypt
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Abstract
White rot, an garlic disease caused by the soil-borne fungus S. cepivora, is a serious problem of garlic productions in Egypt. This study examines the potential of controlling the disease biologically by using three sclerotial mycoparasites i.e., Chaetomium globosum (Chg6), Clonostachys rosea (Cr12) and Penicillium oxalicum (Po9) employed either alone or in combinations. In in vitro assays, these sclerotial mycoparasites showed high antagonistic effect against S. cepivora isolate (Sc8). In greenhouse experiments, the chemical treatment of tebuconazole was the most effective, with the lowest incidence of white rot in garlic compared to the control. Sclerotial mycoparasites either alone or in combinations significantly reduced the incidence of white rot in garlic. In general, dual and triple combinations of the sclerotial mycoparasites were more effective than these isolates used individually. In field experiments, under low (40 sclerotia/kg of soil) and high (600 sclerotia/kg of soil) inoculum levels, the standard fungicide programme gave statistically significant white rot control, decreasing disease incidence by 67.7 & 32.4% in 2016/2017 season and 72.6 & 31.1 % in 2017/2018 season, respectively. Under low inoculum levels, significant control, equal to the fungicide treatment, was achieved with the triple combination of three sclerotial mycoparasites. However, no sclerotial mycoparasites employed alone give significant control of garlic white rot under high inoculum levels. The triple combination of three sclerotial mycoparasites decreasing disease incidence by 70.8 & 25.9 % in 2016/2017 season and 73.7 &27.6 % in 2017/2018 season, under low and high inoculum levels, respectively. The activities of defense enzymes, i.e. peroxidase, polyphenoloxidase and chitinase due to application of sclerotial mycoparasites were enhanced in garlic plants either grown under low or high inoculum levels. Reduction of white rot disease incidence was accompanied by increasing growth parameters and bulbs yield of garlic plants grown under field conditions. These results concluded that the performance of sclerotial mycoparasites may be influenced as much by the absolute disease pressure. At the low disease pressure site, the low level of S. cepivora inoculum enabled sclerotial mycoparasites to bring about disease control.
Keywords
Garlic, White Rot Disease, Inoculum Density, Sclerotial Mycoparasites
To cite this article
Ibrahim Elshahawy, Nehal Saied, Farid Abd El Kareem, Ahmed Morsy, Mahmoud Hozien, Effect of Inoculum Density of Stromatinia cepivora on the Ability of Sclerotial Mycoparasites to Suppress White Rot in Garlic, Journal of Diseases and Medicinal Plants. Vol. 4, No. 2, 2018, pp. 48-58. doi: 10.11648/j.jdmp.20180402.12
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Copyright © 2018 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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