Kinetics of the Free-Radical Nonbranched-Chain Addition
American Journal of Polymer Science and Technology
Volume 3, Issue 3, May 2017, Pages: 29-49
Received: Mar. 12, 2017; Accepted: May 19, 2017; Published: Jun. 5, 2017
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Michael M. Silaev, Chemistry Faculty, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Vorobievy Gory, Moscow, Russia
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Abstract
The aim of this study was the conclusion of simple kinetic equations to describe ab initio initiated nonbranched-chain processes of the saturated free-radical addition to the double bonds of unsaturated molecules in the binary reaction systems of saturated and unsaturated components. In the processes of this kind the formation rate of the molecular addition products (1:1 adducts) as a function of concentration of the unsaturated component has a maximum. Five reaction schemes are suggested for this addition processes. The proposed schemes include the reaction competing with chain propagation reactions through a reactive free radical. The chain evolution stage in these schemes involves three or four types of free radicals. One of them is relatively low-reactive and inhibits the chain process by shortening of the kinetic chain length. Based on the suggested schemes, nine rate equations (containing one to three parameters to be determined directly) are deduced using quasi-steady-state treatment. These equations provide good fits for the nonmonotonic (peaking) dependences of the formation rates of the molecular products (1:1 adducts) on the concentration of the unsaturated component in binary systems consisting of a saturated component (hydrocarbon, alcohol, etc.) and an unsaturated component (alkene, allyl alcohol, formaldehyde, or dioxygen). The unsaturated compound in these systems is both a reactant and an autoinhibitor generating low-reactive free radicals. A similar kinetic description is applicable to the nonbranched-chain process of the free-radical hydrogen oxidation, in which the oxygen with the increase of its concentration begins to act as an oxidation autoingibitor (or an antioxidant). The energetics of the key radical-molecule reactions is considered.
Keywords
Low-Reactive Radical, Autoinhibitor, Competing Reaction, Kinetic Equation, Energy
To cite this article
Michael M. Silaev, Kinetics of the Free-Radical Nonbranched-Chain Addition, American Journal of Polymer Science and Technology. Vol. 3, No. 3, 2017, pp. 29-49. doi: 10.11648/j.ajpst.20170303.11
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Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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