Relieving Grid by Adding PV and BESS for Economical Charging of EV in the Charging Station
American Journal of Computer Science and Technology
Volume 3, Issue 1, March 2020, Pages: 7-17
Received: Dec. 23, 2019;
Accepted: Feb. 3, 2020;
Published: Apr. 14, 2020
Views 347 Downloads 133
Dol Raj Kunwar, Department of Electrical Engineering, Pashchimanchal Campus, IOE, TU, Pokhara, Nepal
Bijay Sharma, Department of Electrical Engineering, Pashchimanchal Campus, IOE, TU, Pokhara, Nepal
Sunil Paudel, Department of Electrical Engineering, Pashchimanchal Campus, IOE, TU, Pokhara, Nepal
Tanka Nath Ojha, Department of Electrical Engineering, Pashchimanchal Campus, IOE, TU, Pokhara, Nepal
Menaka Karki, Department of Electrical Engineering, Pashchimanchal Campus, IOE, TU, Pokhara, Nepal
Being fueled by electric power, electric vehicles (EVs) are the sustainable alternatives to the conventional vehicles: EVs are likely to alleviate the environmental pollution brought out by excessive use of fossil fuels. To realize electric locomotion, there should be efficient charging facility in our electrical infrastructure to charge the batteries of the EVs. This work proposes an effective topology that focuses to reduce the stress on the grid due to overlapping of EV load profile with the normal Grid-electricity load profile in technically as well as financially feasible way. The EV’s owner can charge his/her vehicle up to desired SOC level from the charging station with sources: PV, BESS and Grid. Here, BESS is a massive energy storage system that can store energy from the grid as well as from the PV system which supplies power to the load during day-time. BESS supplies the load during the peak of the system and helps the grid relieve as well as reduce the Grid-electricity bills during peak hours. Regulation of EV load sharing and prevention of mismatch between circulating currents supplied by power sources is implemented using fixed droop method. The trend of power demand of EVs throughout a day in a charging station is assumed in accordance with the other related works. The economic feasibility of the proposed system is verified in terms of the payback period of the investment made on the PV and BESS. The simulations are successfully implemented to validate the effectiveness of the system and to demonstrate the load management.
Dol Raj Kunwar,
Tanka Nath Ojha,
Relieving Grid by Adding PV and BESS for Economical Charging of EV in the Charging Station, American Journal of Computer Science and Technology.
Vol. 3, No. 1,
2020, pp. 7-17.
D. Sperling and M. A. Deluchi, Transportation energy futures. 1989.
O. US EPA, “Greenhouse Gas Emissions from a Typical Passenger Vehicle.”
Z. Moghaddam, I. Ahmad, D. Habibi, and Q. V. Phung, “Smart Charging Strategy for Electric Vehicle Charging Stations,” IEEE Trans. Transp. Electrif., vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 76–88, 2017.
M. R. A. Ashish Kumar Karmaker, Sujit Roy, “Analysis of the impacts of Electric Vehicle Charging Station in Bangladesh,” ECCE, IEEE Conf., pp. 7–9, 2019.
M. Yilmaz and P. T. Krein, “Review of the impact of vehicle-to-grid technologies on distribution systems and utility interfaces,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 28, no. 12, pp. 5673–5689, 2013.
A. Malhotra, N. Erdogan, G. Binetti, I. D. Schizas, and A. Davoudi, “Impact of Charging Interruptions in Coordinated Electric Vehicle Charging,” Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, Texas, 76010 USA Department of Electrical and Information Engineering, Polytechnic University,” pp. 901–905, 2016.
W. Kempton and J. Tomić, “Vehicle-to-grid power implementation: From stabilizing the grid to supporting large-scale renewable energy,” J. Power Sources, vol. 144, no. 1, pp. 280–294, 2005.
W. Kempton and J. Tomić, “Vehicle-to-grid power fundamentals: Calculating capacity and net revenue,” J. Power Sources, vol. 144, no. 1, pp. 268–279, 2005.
J. A. P. Lopes, P. M. R. Almeida, and F. J. Soares, “Using vehicle-to-grid to maximize the integration of intermittent renewable energy resources in islanded electric grids,” 2009 Int. Conf. Clean Electr. Power, ICCEP 2009, pp. 290–295, 2009.
N. Erdoğan, F. Erden, and T. Altun, “Coordinated Electric Vehicle Charging Strategy in Microgrids Containing PV System,” vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 9–21, 2017.
J. García-Villalobos, I. Zamora, J. I. San Martín, F. J. Asensio, and V. Aperribay, “Plug-in electric vehicles in electric distribution networks: A review of smart charging approaches,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., vol. 38, pp. 717–731, 2014.
M. O. Badawy and Y. Sozer, “Power Flow Management of a Grid Tied PV-Battery System for Electric Vehicles Charging,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 1347–1357, 2017.
A. Ul-Haq, M. Azhar, Y. Mahmoud, A. Perwaiz, and E. A. Al-Ammar, “Probabilistic modeling of electric vehicle charging pattern associated with residential load for voltage unbalance assessment,” Energies, vol. 10, no. 9, pp. 1–18, 2017.
C. Balakishan, N. Sandeep, and M. V Aware, “Design and Implementation of Three-Level DC-DC Converter with Golden Section Search Based MPPT for the Photovoltaic Applications Design and Implementation of Three-Level DC-DC Converter with Golden Section Search Based MPPT for the Photovoltaic Applicatio,” no. March 2015, 2016.
A. Hassoune, M. Khafallah, A. Mesbahi, and T. Bouragba, “Power management strategies of electric vehicle charging station based grid tied PV-battery system,” Int. J. Renew. Energy Res., vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 851–860, 2018.
“Electricity Load profile of Nepal in 2073 Chaiitra | Nepal Electricity Authority - Datasets - Open Data Nepal.” [Online]. Available: http://opendatanepal.com/dataset/electricity-load-profile-of-nepal-in-2073-chaiitra-nepal-electricity-authority. [Accessed: 22-Dec-2019].
P. Chaudhari, M. Khadse, V. Jadhav, P. Patil, and K. Daware, “Novel Control Strategy for Dynamic Load Sharing Between DC-DC Converters for DC Microgrid,” vol. 2, no. 6, pp. 3–7, 2015.
A. Tah and D. Das, “An Enhanced Droop Control Method for Accurate Load Sharing and Voltage Improvement of Isolated and Interconnected DC Microgrids,” IEEE Trans. Sustain. Energy, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 1194–1204, 2016.
M. Mokhtar, M. I. Marei, and A. A. El-Sattar, “An adaptive droop control scheme for DC microgrids integrating sliding mode voltage and current controlled boost converters,” IEEE Trans. Smart Grid, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 1685–1693, 2019.
K. Zhang et al., “Optimal Charging Schemes for Electric Vehicles in Smart Grid: A Contract Theoretic Approach,” IEEE Trans. Intell. Transp. Syst., vol. 19, no. 9, pp. 3046–3058, 2018.
R. M. Thomas and D. Jose, “Control Method for Parallel DC- DC Converters used in Standalone Photovoltaic Power System.”
M. L. Hagge, “Engineering Economic Analysis of Solar Pv Installations Considering Power Conversion Alternatives,” 2016.
A. D. Bank, Handbook on Battery Energy Storage System, no. December. 2018.
“Time-of-Use Rates.” [Online]. Available: http://www.ieso.ca/en/Power-Data/Price-Overview/Time-of-Use-Rates. [Accessed: 22-Dec-2019].
“The Price Of Electricity In Your State : Planet Money : NPR,” NPR, 2011. [Online]. Available: https://www.npr.org/sections/money/2011/10/27/141766341/the-price-of-electricity-in-your-state. [Accessed: 22-Dec-2019].
W. Kuihua, N. Xinsheng, W. Jian, W. Kuizhong, and J. Shanjie, “Electric Vehicle Load Characteristic Analysis and Impact of Regional Power Grid,” pp. 257–261, 2012.
M. Karki and J. G. Singh, “An Approach to Enhance Battery Life of Gridable Vehicles and the Transformer Life in an Active Distribution System Using PSO,” no. April 2017.