Assessment of Natural Radioactivity Levels and Radiological Hazards of Cement in Iraq
Volume 3, Issue 2, June 2018, Pages: 23-27
Received: Sep. 27, 2018;
Accepted: Oct. 10, 2018;
Published: Nov. 5, 2018
Views 972 Downloads 103
Zaki A. Mansoor, Radiation Protection Department, Ministry of Science and Technology, Baghdad, Iraq
Takrid Muneam Nafae, Radiation Protection Department, Ministry of Science and Technology, Baghdad, Iraq
Ali Kareem K. Jelaot, Nuclear Safety Department, Ministry of Science and Technology, Baghdad, Iraq
Eight samples of cement were collected from different commercial factories (Al-Koufa, Al-Basra, Al-Najaf and Kerkouk factories) located in Iraq. They were analyzed using a gamma ray spectroscopy system. The activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were ranged from 5.8 to 43.17 Bq kg-1, from 0.99 to 55.79 Bq kg-1 and from 53.28 to 185.34 Bq kg-1, respectively. The potential radiological hazards were assessed by calculating the radium equivalent activity (Raeq), the indoor absorbed gamma dose rate (D), the annual effective dose equivalent (AEDE), the alpha index (Iα), the gamma index (Iγ), and the external hazard (Hex) and internal hazard (Hin) indices. The highest value of Raeq is estimated of 101.36 Bq kg-1, which is significantly less than the upper limit of 370 Bq kg-1. The estimated maximum value of the absorbed gamma dose rate of 54.71 nGy h-1 is within the world average value of 55 nGy h-1, and the annual effective dose equivalent in the studied samples were 0.05 (outdoor), 0.18 (indoor) mSv y-1, which is lower than the recommended limit reported in the UNSCEAR (2000). The values of the hazard indices were below the recommended levels; therefore, the study shows that the measured radioactivity for cement does not pose as significant source of radiation hazard and is safe for use in the construction of dwellings.
Zaki A. Mansoor,
Takrid Muneam Nafae,
Ali Kareem K. Jelaot,
Assessment of Natural Radioactivity Levels and Radiological Hazards of Cement in Iraq, Nuclear Science.
Vol. 3, No. 2,
2018, pp. 23-27.
Ali, K. K., 2012. "Radioactivity in building material in Iraq". Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 148 (3), 372–379.
Hussain, H. H., Hussain, R. O., Yousef, R. M. and Shamkhi, Q., 2010. "Natural radioactivity of some local building materials in the middle Euphrates of Iraq”, Radio analytical and Nuclear Chemistry, Vol. 284, P: 43–47.
Turhan, S., 2008."Assessment of the natural radioactivity and radiological hazards in Turkish cement and its raw materials". J. Environ. Radioact, Vol. 99, 404-414.
Hany El-Gamal, Marwa Abdel Hamid, A. I. Abdel Mageed, A. L. El-Attar., 2012. "-226Ra, -232Th and -40K analysis in water samples from Assiut, Egypt". XI Radiation Physics & Protection Conference, 106-106, (2012).
United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), Sources, Effects and Risks of Ionizing Radiation. New York (1988).
United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), Sources and Effects of Ionizing Radiation. Report to the General Assembly, with scientific annexes, United Nations, New York (2008).
Rahman SU, Rafique M, Jabbar A, Matiullah, 2013. "Radiological hazards due to naturally occurring radionuclides in the selected building materials used for the construction of dwellings in four districts of the Punjab province”, Pakistan. Radiat Prot Dosim; 153(3): 352–360.
R. Ravisankar, K. Vanasundari, A. Chandrasekaran, A. Rajalak-shmi, M. Suganya, P. Vijayagopal, V. Meenakshisundaram, Measurement of natural radioactivity in building materials of Namakkal, Tamilnadu, India using gamma ray spectrometry, Appl. Radiat. Isot. 70 (2012) 699–704.
Genie 2000 operations tools manual, Canberra Industries Inc, USA (2001).
J. Beretka, P. J. Mathew, Natural radioactivity of Australian building materials, industrial wastes and by-products, Health Phys. 48(1985) 87–95.
INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY, Protection of the Public against Exposure Indoors due to Radon and Other Natural Sources of Radiation, IAEA Specific Safety Guide No. SSG-32, IAEA, Vienna (2015).
UNSCEAR United National Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation Sources and Risks of Ionizing Radiation, Report to the General Assembly with Annexes, United Nations, New York, 2000.
EC (European Commission), Radiation Protection, 112 –Radiological Protection Principles Concerning the Natural Radioactivity of Building Materials, Directorate General Environment. Nuclear Safety and Civil Protection, 1999.
V. R. Krieger, Radioactivity of construction materials, Betonwerk Fertigteil Technol. 47 (1981) 468–473.
Roy, S.; Alam, M. S.; Begum, M.; and Alam, B. "Radioactivity in building materials used in and around Dhaka city". Radiat. Prot. Dosim, Vol. 114, 527–532, (2005).
Lu, X.; Yang, G. and Ren, C. “Natural radioactivity and radiological hazards of building materials in Xianyang, China”. Radiat. Phys. Chem, Vol. 81, 780–784, (2012).
Ahmed NK. Measurement of natural radioactivity in building materials in Qena city, Upper Egypt. J Environ Radioact. 2005; 3: 91–99.
Rahman SU, Rafique M, Jabbar A, Matiullah. Radiological hazards due to naturally occurring radionuclides in the selected building materials used for the construction of dwellings in four districts of the Punjab province, Pakistan. Radiat Prot Dosim. 2013; 153(3): 352–360.
Erees FS, Dayanikli SA, Çam S. Natural Radionuclides in the Building Materials used in Manisa City, Turkey. Indoor Built Environ. 2006; 15(5): 495–498.
Mollah AS, Ahmed GU, Husain SR, Rahman MM. The Natural Radioactivity of some Building Materials used in Bangladesh. Health Phys. 1986; 50(6): 849–851. PMID: 3710795.
Khandaker MU, Jojo PJ, Kassim HA, Amin YM. Radiometric analysis of construction materials using HPGe gamma-ray spectrometry. Radiat Prot Dosim. 2012; 152: 33–37.