Optimization of Colour Reduction in the Pharmaceutical Effluent by Response Surface Methodology
International Journal of Environmental Chemistry
Volume 4, Issue 1, June 2020, Pages: 28-37
Received: Mar. 3, 2020; Accepted: Mar. 24, 2020; Published: Apr. 14, 2020
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Ifeoma Mary Jane Iloamaeke, Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Faculty of Physical Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria
Chineyelu Ijeamaka Egwuatu, Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Faculty of Physical Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria
Harry Alphonsus Onwumelu, Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Faculty of Physical Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria
Christian Elochukwu Nzoka-Okoye, Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Faculty of Physical Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria
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This research deals with the reduction of colour in the pharmaceutical effluent by Treculia Africans seed coat (TA) as a coagulant using Box behnken design (BBD) from the response surface methodology (RSM). The pharmaceutical effluent was subjected to physicochemical analysis to determine the level of pollution. The coagulant was characterized by Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) and Scanning electron micrograph (SEM). Result of the physicochemical analysis of the pharmaceutical effluent showed that the colour of the effluent is purple and its pH (8.11), Hardness (176 mg/L), phosphate 10.22 mg/L) and turbidity 560 mg/L) were found to be above WHO permissible limit of effluent disposal. BBD generated 17 experimental run in which coagulation-flocculation process was carried out. These experimental data were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and was found to fit 2nd order polynomial model (quadratic equation). The plot of predicted versus actual data confirmed that the model describe explicitly the colour reduction efficiency. The process parameters such as coagulant dosages (100-500 mg/L), settling time (10-50 minutes) and pH (2-10) were optimized to get the best treatment condition for colour reduction efficiency. The optimum colour reduction efficiency is 64.36% at coagulant dosage of 252.32 mg/L, settling time of 25.31 minutes and pH of 2.89. The SEM image after treatment suggested that pollutant has been removed from the pharmaceutical effluent since there is change in the surface morphology of the coagulant while FTIR analysis result after treatment proposed removal and addition of bonds due to interaction between the colloid particles of the pharmaceutical effluent and the coagulant. Hence, Treculia Africans seed coat (TA) can serve as alternative coagulant for reduction of colour from Pharmaceutical effluent.
Pharmaceutical Effluent, Coagulant, Response Surface Methodology, Treculia Africans, Optimization
To cite this article
Ifeoma Mary Jane Iloamaeke, Chineyelu Ijeamaka Egwuatu, Harry Alphonsus Onwumelu, Christian Elochukwu Nzoka-Okoye, Optimization of Colour Reduction in the Pharmaceutical Effluent by Response Surface Methodology, International Journal of Environmental Chemistry. Special Issue: Efficiency Optimization of Pharmaceutical Effluent Treatment. Vol. 4, No. 1, 2020, pp. 28-37. doi: 10.11648/j.ijec.20200401.14
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