Gold Mining Activities on Surrounding Soils of Kombo Laka in Adamaoua Region-Cameroon
International Journal of Environmental Chemistry
Volume 3, Issue 1, June 2019, Pages: 24-29
Received: Mar. 7, 2019;
Accepted: Apr. 15, 2019;
Published: May 20, 2019
Views 31 Downloads 9
Nchare Mominou, Department of Mining Engineering, School of Geology & Mining Engineering, University of Ngaoundere, Ngaoundéré, Cameroon
Hamadou Dio, Department of Mining Engineering, School of Geology & Mining Engineering, University of Ngaoundere, Ngaoundéré, Cameroon
Kah Elvis, Department of Geomatic and Cartography, School of Geology & Mining Engineering, University of Ngaoundere, Ngaoundéré, Cameroon
Badohok Sarki, Department of Mining Engineering, School of Geology & Mining Engineering, University of Ngaoundere, Ngaoundéré, Cameroon
Heavy metal pollution is one of the most important problems in mining industry, causing serious effects to humans and animals. The present study evaluates the spatial distribution of heavy metals in Kombo Laka mine area in Mbere subdivision, and evaluates the characteristics of the pollution generated by mining activities in this locality. A total of 24 soil samples were collected from Adamsi, Benou, Abattoir and Wantia mining sites along with two control soil samples. Parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity and carbonate content were measured according to standard methods, while heavy metals concentration in different samples was determined fluorescence x(XRF). Coarse sand (2.0-1.0 mm) and fine sand (0.250-0.125 mm) were the dominant fractions of all soils samples, ranging from 28.3 to 24.2 and 25.4 to 23.2% in Abatoir and Adamsi soils respectively. At the same time, silty clay (<0.031 mm) was the dominant fraction ranging from 20.3 to 24.9%. The pollution load index (PLI) was calculated to evaluate the degree of contamination. The results of PLI for the selected elements confirm anthropogenic action in the area since all values are > 1. Contamination factors (CF) and pollution index (IP) were calculated for Arsenic (As), Copper (Cu), Lead (Pb) and Zinc (Zn), in order to estimate the anthropogenic contribution of these elements in the pollution of this locality. The results show that the area is polluted and measures need to be taken for remediation.
Gold Mining Activities on Surrounding Soils of Kombo Laka in Adamaoua Region-Cameroon, International Journal of Environmental Chemistry.
Vol. 3, No. 1,
2019, pp. 24-29.
Olivier A. «Chimie et pollution des eaux souterraines», Tec et DocLavoisierEdition. 2005.
Srivastava N. K., Majumder C. B. Novel biofiltration methods for the treatment of heavy metals from industrial wastewater, J. Hazard. Mater. 2008, 151, 1-8
Dinetto, M. Dossier SAM –«les métaux lourds» Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Saint Etienne. 1997, p 201.
Song Y, Ji J, Mao C, Yang Z, Yuan X, Ayoko GA, Fros RL. Heavy metal contamination in suspended soils of Changjiang River – environmental implications. Geoderma. 2010, 159, 286-295.
Figueroa F, Castro-Larragoitia J, Aragón A, Garcia-Meza J. Grass cover density and metal speciation in profiles of a tailings-pile from mining zones in Zacatecas, North-Central Mexico. Environ. Earth Sci. 2010, 60, 395-407.
Muhammad S, Tahir Shah M, Khan S. Heavy metal concentrations in soil and wild plants growing around Pb-Zn sulfide terrain in the Kohistan region, northern Pakistan. Microchem. J. 2011, 99, 67-75.
Sharma RK, Agrawal M, Marshall F. Heavy metal contamination of soil and vegetables in suburban areas of Varanasi, India. Ecotoxico. Environ. Safety. 2007, 66, 258-266.
Sousa A, Pereira R, Antunes SC, Cachada A, Pereira E, Duarte AC, Gonçalves F. Validation of avoidance assays for the screening assessment of soils under different anthropogenic disturbances. Ecotoxico. Environ. Safety. 2008, 71, 661-670.
Nchare Mominou, Yaya Al Issah, Bahodock Sarki, Elvis Kah. Physicochemical Characterisation of Soils at the Gold Exploitation Sites of Bétaré-Oya District in Cameroon and Pollution Evaluation. Open Journal of Inorganic Chemistry, 2018, 8, 81-90.
Toteu, S. F., YongueFouateu, R., Penaye, J., Tchakounte, J., Seme Mouangue, A. C., Van Schmus, W. R., Deloule, E., Stendhal, H. U–Pb dating of plutonic rocks involved in the nappe tectonic in southern Cameroon: consequence for the Pan-African orogenic evolution of the Central African fold belt. Journal African Earth Sciences. 2006, 44, 479–493.
UNEP/IAEA, “Determination of total lead in marine sediments by flameless atomicabsorption spectrophotometry,” Reference Methods for Marine Pollution Studies. 1985, 34, 1-9.
Loureiro S, Ferreira A, Soares A, Nogueira A. Evaluation of the toxicity of two soils from Jales Mine (Portugal) using aquatic bioassays. Chemosphere. 2005, 61, 168-177.
Hakånson, L. Ecological risk index for aquatic pollution control, a sedimentological approach, Water Res. 1980, 14, 975–1001.
Nelson DW, Sommers LE Total carbon, organic carbon and organic matter. In Page, L. Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 2. Agronomy 9. American Society of Agronomy. Ed. Madison. 1982, pp. 279-539.
Allen SE, Grimshaw HM, Parkinson HM, Quarmby JA. Chemical Analysis of Ecological Materials. Blackwell Scientific publications, Oxford. 1974.
Hakånson, L “Ecological risk index for aquatic pollution control, a sedimentological approach,” Water Res. 1980, 14, 975–1001.
Guillén M. T. et al., “Heavy metals fractionation and multivariate statistical techniques to evaluate the environmental risk in soils of Huelva Township (SW Iberian Peninsula),” J. Geochem. Explor. 2012, 120, 32- 43.
García-Lorenzo. M. L., C. Pérez-Sirvent, J. Molina-Ruiz, and M. J. Martinez Sanchez, “Mobility indices for the assessment of metal contamination in soils affected by old mining activities. Journal of Geochemical Exploration. 2014, 147, pp. 117-129.
Shepard, F. P. Nomenclature based on sand–silt–clay ratios. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology. 1954, 24, 151–158.
De Matos AT, Fontes MPF, Da Costa LM, Martínez MA. Mobility of heavy metals as related to soil chemical and mineralogical characteristics of Brazilian soils. Environ. Pollut. 2001, 111, 429-35.
Wang GP, Liu JS, Tang J. The long-term nutrient accumulation with respect to anthropogenic impacts in the sediments from two freshwater marshes (Xianghai Wetlands, Northeast China). Water Res. 2004, 38, 4462-4474.
Gonçalves EPR, Boaventura RAR, Mouvet C. Sediments and aquatic mosses as pollution indicators for heavy metals in the Ave River Basin (Portugal). Sci. Total Environ. 1992, 114, 7-24.
Gonçalves EPR, Soares HMVM, Boaventura RAR, Machado AASC, Esteves DaSilva JCG. Seasonal variations of heavy metals in sediments and aquatic mosses from the Cavado river basin (Portugal). Sci. Total Environ. 1994, 142, 143-156.