Levels of Heavy Metals in Soil Sample from Active Automobile Workshops in Benin City
International Journal of Environmental Chemistry
Volume 3, Issue 1, June 2019, Pages: 7-17
Received: May 1, 2018; Accepted: Feb. 21, 2019; Published: Mar. 14, 2019
Views 281      Downloads 96
Authors
Anegbe Bala, Department of Basic and Industrial Chemistry, Western Delta University, Oghara, Delta State, Nigeria
Okuo James Majebi, Environmental Analytical Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria
Okieimen Felix Ebhodaghe, GeoEnvironmental and Climate Change, Department of Chemistry, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria
Ugbune Ufuoma, Department of Chemistry, Delta State College of Education, Mosogar, Nigeria
Emina Rosemary Anwuli, Department of Chemistry, Chrisland University, Abeokuta, Nigeria
Article Tools
Follow on us
Abstract
The evaluation of heavy metals contamination of soils as a means of monitoring the status of the environment for the good of the ecosystem is crucial. Benin city was subdivided into four zones (south east SE, south west SW, north east NE and north west NW) In this study, top soil (TS) and distance top soil (DTS) samples from three hundred and thirty-nine auto repair workshops in Benin City, Nigeria were assessed for physico-chemical properties and heavy metals (HMs), using standard methods. The main soil properties (pH, cation exchange capacity, total organic carbon and particle sizes) were determined for a network of representative sampling sites. The results shows that the average levels of the heavy metals (excluding Fe) in soil samples from within and 30 m away from the automobile workshops in the various zones are 143.1 (88.6), 118.6 (86.9), 129.1 (79.2) and 143.3 (113.0) for SE, SW, NE and NW respectively (the values in bracket represents DTS). When compared with mean concentrations for other cities. The results revealed higher concentrations of heavy metals in topsoil samples than in 30 m away from the epicentre samples. The samples from North West and South East part of the city had higher Cr, Ni, Pb, and Zn contents than samples from the other Locations. All the heavy metals show significant differences in their means across the two sampling locations (TS and DTS). The correlation analysis showed that all the heavy metals were significantly correlated with each other. The principal component analysis produced only one component which accounted for 69.414% of the total variation between the heavy metals.
Keywords
Heavy Metals, Auto-repair Workshops, Soils, Concentrations
To cite this article
Anegbe Bala, Okuo James Majebi, Okieimen Felix Ebhodaghe, Ugbune Ufuoma, Emina Rosemary Anwuli, Levels of Heavy Metals in Soil Sample from Active Automobile Workshops in Benin City, International Journal of Environmental Chemistry. Vol. 3, No. 1, 2019, pp. 7-17. doi: 10.11648/j.ijec.20190301.12
Copyright
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
References
[1]
Anegbe, B., Okuo, J. M. and Okieimen, F. E. (2016). The impact of inorganic and organic pollutants in soil from the vicinity of mechanic workshops in Benin City. International Journal of Chemical Studies. 4(3):106-112.
[2]
Nortcliff, S. (2002) Standardisation of soil quality attributes. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 88: 161–168.
[3]
VanStraalen, (2004) The use of soil invertebrates in ecological surveys of contaminatedsoils. Developments in Soil Science, 29: 159-195.
[4]
Anegbe, B., Okuo, J. M. and Okieimen, F. E. (2017). Characterization and remediation of soil co-contaminated by heavy metals and petroleum hydrocarbons. Mostvirtue Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria.
[5]
Odoh, R., Oko, O. J., Kolawale, S. A. and Oche, E. O. (2011) A comparative study of the heavy metal content of drinking water in different storage vessels. International Journal of Modern Chemistry, 5(3): 166-180.
[6]
Ipeaiyeda, A. R. and Dawodu, M. (2008) Heavy metals contamination of topsoil and dispersion in the vicinities of reclaimed auto-repair workshops in Iwo, Nigeria. Bulletin of Chemical Society of Ethiopia, 22(3): 339-348.
[7]
Idugboe, S. O., Tawari-Fufeyin, M. A. A. (2014) Soil pollution in two auto-mechanic villages in Benin City, Nigeria. Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology 8(1): 9-14.
[8]
Odjegba, V. J. and Sadiq, A. O. (2002) Effects of spent engine oil on the growth parameters, chlorophyll and protein levels of Amaranthus hybridus L. The Environmentalist, 22: 23-28.
[9]
Ololade, I. A., Lajide, L. and Amoo, I. A. (2007) Enrichment of Heavy Metals in Sediments as Pollution Indicator of the Aquatic Ecosystem. Pakistan Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, 50: 27-35.
[10]
Anegbe, B., Okuo, J. M., Ewekay, E. O. and Ogbeifun, D. E. (2014) Fractionation of lead-acid battery soil amended with biochar. Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 7(2):36-43.
[11]
Asagba, E. U., Okiemien, F. E. and Osokpor, J. (2007). Screening and speciation of heavy metal contaminated soil from an automobile spare-parts market. Chemical Speciation and Bioavailability, 19(1): 9-15.
[12]
Khodadoust, A. P., Reddy, K. R. and Maturi, K. (2004) Removal of nickel and phenanthrene from kaolin soil using different extractants, Environmental Engineering Science, 21(6): 691-704.
[13]
Okoro, D., Oviasogie, P. O. and Oviasogie, F. E. (2011) Soil quality assessment 33 months after crude oil spillageand clean-up. Chemical Speciation and Bioavailability, 23 (1): 1-6.
[14]
Hazelton, P. A. and Murphy, B. W. (2007) Interpreting Soil Test Results: What do all the Numbers Mean? CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, pp17.
[15]
Ugbune, U. and Okuo, J. (2011) Sequential Fractionation and Distribution of Heavy Metals in Soil from Battery Work Sites. Nigeria Journal of Applied Science.29: 132-141.
[16]
Okiemen, F. E., Emwanta, D. O. and Odikayo, O. O. (2012). Stabilization of heavy Metals in CCA Contaminated Soil. International Journal of Applied Environmental Sciences, 7(2): 215-232.
[17]
Osuji, L. C. and Nwoye, I. (2007) An appraisal of the impact of petroleum hydrocarbons on soil fertility: The Owaza experience. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 2(7): 318– 324.
[18]
Nwachukwu, M. A., Feng, H., and Alinnor, J. (2010) Assessment of heavy metalsin soil and their implications within and around mechanic villages, International Journal of Environmental Science and Techology, 7(2): 347-358.
[19]
Adelekan, B. A. and Abegunde, K. D. (2011) Heavy metal contamination of soil and ground water at automobile mechanic villages in Ibadan, Nigeria. International Journal of Physical Sciences, 6(5): 1045-1058.
[20]
Abidemi, O. O. (2011) Levels of Pb, Fe, Cd and Co in Soils of Automotive Workshop in Osun State, Nigeria. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management, 15(2): 279-282.
[21]
Zhao, P., Tan, Y., Guo, Y., Gu, X., Wang, X. and Zhang, Y. (2013) Interaction of tetracycline with Cd(II) Cu(II) and Pb(II) and their cosorption behavior in soils. Environmental Pollution, 180: 206-213.
[22]
Chirenje, T., Ma, L. Q., Clark, C. and Reeves, M. (2003). Cu, Cr and As distribution in soils adjacent to pressure-treated decks, fences and poles. Journal of Environmental Pollution, 124: 407-417.
[23]
Kabata-Pendias, A. and Pendias, H. (1992) Trace Elements in Soils and Plants. 2nd edition, CRC Press, Boca Raton. Pp 365.
[24]
Babatunde, O. A., Oyewale, O. A. and Steve, P. I. (2014) Bioavailability of Trace Element in Soils around Nnpc Oil Depot Jos Nigeria. Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology, 8: 47-56.
[25]
Okunola, O. J., Uzairu, A., and Ndukwe, G. (2007) Levels of trace metals in soiland vegetation along major and minor roads in metropolitan city of Kaduna, Nigeria, African Journal of Biotechnology, 6(14): 1703-1709.
[26]
Sitkol, L. R., Zawisza, B., Jurczyk, J., Buhl, F. and Zielonka, U. (2004) Determination of High Zn and Pb Concentrations in Polluted Soils Using Energy-Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 13(1): 91-96.
[27]
United States Environmental Protection Agency, USEPA (2008) Allowable Limits for Lead in Soil. www.epa.gov/lead/pubs/leadhaz.htm.
[28]
National Environment Protection Council of Australia, NEPCA (2010) Limits of Heavy Metals in Soils. Available online at www.newzealand.govt.nz.
[29]
Department of Petroleum Resources (2002) Environmental guidelines and Standards for the petroleum industries in Nigeria Depaertment of Petroleum Resources, Ministry of Petroleum and Mineral Resources, Abuja, Nigeria.
[30]
CCME (1999) Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment, Canadiansoil quality guidelines for the protection of environmental and human health: Summary Tables In: Canadian environmental quality guidelines, 1999. Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment, Winnipeg. Pp. 131-147.
[31]
Reyes-Gutiérrez, L. R., Romero-Guzmán, E. T., Cabral-Prieto, A., Rodríguez- Castillo, R. (2007). Characterization of Chromium in Contaminated SoilStudied by SEM, EDS, XRD and Mössbauer Spectroscopy. J. Miner. Mater. Characterization Eng. 7(1): 59-70.
[32]
Ebong, G. A., Akpan, M. M. and Mkpene, V. N. (2008) Heavy metal content of municipal and rural dumpsite soils and rate of accumulation by Carica papaya and Talinum triangulare in Uyo Nigeria. E-Journal of Chemistry, 5(2): 281-290.
[33]
Uba, S., Uzairu, A., Harrison, G. F. S., Balarabe, M. L. and Okunola, O. J. (2008) Assessment of heavy metals bioavailability in dumpsites of Zaria metropolis, Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology, 7(2): 122-130.
[34]
Lenntech, W. T. (2009) Chemical Properties, Health and Environmental Effects of Copper. Lenntech WaterTreatment and Purification Holding B. V. www. Lenntech. comeriodic/element/cu.htm.
[35]
Duda-Chodak, A. and Blaszczyk, U. (2008) The Impact of Nickel on HumanHealth. Journal Elementology, 13(4): 685-696.
[36]
Anoliefo, G. O., Isikhuemhen, O. S. and Agbuna, S. O. (2001) Small scale industrial village in Benin City Nigeria: Establishment failure and phytotoxicity assessment of soils from the abandoned site. Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 131: 169–183.
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-983-5186