Removal of Heavy Metals from Their Solution Using Polystyrene Adsorbent (Foil Take-Away Disposable Plates)
International Journal of Environmental Chemistry
Volume 2, Issue 2, December 2018, Pages: 29-38
Received: Oct. 1, 2018; Accepted: Oct. 15, 2018; Published: Nov. 5, 2018
Views 1010      Downloads 135
Iwuozor Kingsley Ogemdi, Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria
Article Tools
Follow on us
The presence of heavy metal ions, viz. Cr(vi), Mn(ii) and Cu(ii), in aquatic systems pose heavy risks to human health. Therefore, removal of such metal ions from water bodies may be considered an interesting and important research activity. This is a research work on the removal of heavy metals from their solution with the use of polystyrene. Polystyrene (Foil take-away disposable plates) was sourced locally. The Plates were ground to fine particles to increase the surface area for adsorption and then serial dilution was performed. The adsorption isotherm models used were Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich (DR). The result from the models showed that Langmuir fits better for Cr(vi) and Cu(ii) while DR fits in better for Mn(ii). Results obtained showed that adsorption followed second order kinetics. Equilibrium was obtained at 30 minutes. Thermodynamic data for enthalpy (ΔH) for Cr, Cu, and Mn are 2036.986 J/mol, 24276.88 J/mol and 27469 J/mol respectively and showed that adsorption was found to be endothermic. Entropy results were -49.21888 J/K, -117.97566 J/K and 66.7828 J/K for Cr(vi), Cu(ii) and Mn(ii) respectively, showing a decrease in entropy. Free energy change showed that adsorption for Chromium and Manganese at temperatures 323, 343 and 363K were spontaneous, while Copper was non spontaneous. pH result showed maximum adsorption at pH of 6. This study showed that polystyrene fits better for the adsorption of Chromium and Copper ion in the Langmuir Isotherm model. While that of Manganese was described better by the Dubinin-Radushkevich Isotherm Model. It is hereby recommended that polystyrene wastes are good adsorbents for the removal of heavy metals from aqueous solutions. Therefore, should be employed for the removal of heavy metals in the environment, as it can be easily gotten even at a low cost.
Heavy Metals, Isotherms, Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Radushkevich, Entropy, Thermodynamics, Free Energy
To cite this article
Iwuozor Kingsley Ogemdi, Removal of Heavy Metals from Their Solution Using Polystyrene Adsorbent (Foil Take-Away Disposable Plates), International Journal of Environmental Chemistry. Vol. 2, No. 2, 2018, pp. 29-38. doi: 10.11648/j.ijec.20180202.11
Copyright © 2018 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abdelwahab, O. (2007) Kinetics and isotherm studies of copper II removal from wastewater using various adsorbents. Egypt J. Aquuatic. Res. 33; 125-143.
AydIn, H.; Bulut, Y.; Yerlikaya, Ç.(2008): Removal of copper (II) from aqueous solution by adsorption onto low-cost adsorbents. J. Environ. Manage, 87; 37-45.
Chunhua, X., Caping, Y.; (2009), Synthesis, characterization and application of triethylenetetramine modified polystyrene resin in removal of mercury, cadmium and lead from aqeous solution, J. chem. Eng. 7; 844-850.
Conrad, K.; Bruun.; Hansen, H, C.(2007): Sorption of zinc and lead on coir. J. Bioresource. Technol., 98; 89-97.
Encyclopædia Britannica (2011). Encyclopædia Britannica Ultimate Reference Suite. Chicago.
Ghazy S. E., Mostafa G. A., (2008): Separation of Cd(II), Hg(II), Bi(III) and Sb(III) from drinking and river waters by flotation, Canad. J. Anal. Sci. 9; 250-300.
Graham Solomon T. W. (1996): A text book of organic chemistry, 6th ed., Wiley and sons INC., Canada. pp 397-685.
Guibal, E. 2004:Interactions of metal ions with chitosan-based sorbents: A review. Sep. Purif. Technol., 38, 43-74.
Gunduz, T. (1994): Environmental Problems" Bilge Press, Ankara pp. 45-50.
Ho YS, Mckay G, Wase DAJ, Foster CF (2000) Study of the sorption of divalent metal ions on to peat. Ads. Sci. Technol. 1; 639-650.
Horsfall Jr M, Spiff AI, Abia AA (2004) Studies on the influence of mercaptoacetic acid (MAA) modification of cassava (manihotesculentaCranz) waste biomass on the adsorption of Cu+2 and Cd+2 from aqueous solution. Bull Korean. Chem. SC. 25; 969-976.
http//WWW.adsorption Isotherm-Transtutors.htmAcessed 3-2-2016.
http//…Accessed 3-12-2016.
Igwe JC, Abia AA (2007) Equilibrium sorption isotherm studies of Cd(II)Pb(II) and Zn(II) ions detoxification from waste water using unmodified and EDTA-modified maize husk. Electron. J. Biotechnol. 10; 536-548.
Karpuzcu, M. (1988): Introduction to Environmental Engineering", Istanbul Technical University, Civil Faculty Press, Istanbul
Khaton, V., (2011)Solid stateChemistry, 2nd ed., Wiley publisher., Canada.
Kumar, U.; Bandyopadhyay, M. 2006: Sorption of cadmium from aqueous solution using pretreated rice husk. Bioresource. Technol.97; 104-109.
Matthews P., (1996): Advanced Chemistry International Sales department Cambridge University press, the Edinburg Building, Pp 692-693.
Miretzky, P.; Cirelli, A. F. 2009:Hg(II) removal from water by chitosan and chitosan derivatives: A review. J. Hazard. Mate. 167; 10-23.
Rao R. A. K., Ikram S. and Ahmad J. (2011): Adsorption of Pb(II) on a composite material prepared from polystyrene, Alumina and activated carbon: kinetic and thermodynamic studies. J. Iran. Chem. SC. 8(4); 931-943.
Sivaraj R. (2001), Carbon from Cassava peel, an Agricultural Waste, as an Adsorbent in the Removal of Dyes and Heavy Metal ions from the aqueous Solution. Bioresource Technol. 80(3); 233-235.
Throat R. B., Burungale A. S., KadamPatil N. B., (2009): Liquid liquid extraction and separation of bismuth (III) with n-n-hexylaniline, Rasayan J. Chem. 2; 1-8.
Tokman N, Akman S., (2004): Determination of bismuth and cadmium aftersolid-phase extraction with chromosorb-107 in a syringe, Anal. Chim. Acta. 519(1); 87-91.
Uzun I. and Guzel F. (2000), Adsorption of heavy metal ions from Aqueous solution. J. Haz. Mate. 24(1); 291-297.
Wang R., Liao X., Zhao S., Shi K., (2006): Adsorption of bismuth (III) by bayberry tannin immobilized on collagen fiber, J. Chem. Technol. Biotechnol. 81; 1301 -1306.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186