Decolorizing Methyl Orange by Fe-Electrocoagulation Process – A Mechanistic Insight
International Journal of Environmental Chemistry
Volume 2, Issue 1, June 2018, Pages: 18-28
Received: Aug. 9, 2018;
Accepted: Aug. 20, 2018;
Published: Sep. 13, 2018
Views 430 Downloads 42
Sara Irki, Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University of Blida, Blida, Algeria
Djamel Ghernaout, Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University of Blida, Blida, Algeria; Chemical Engineering Department, College of Engineering, University of Ha’il, Ha’il, Saudi Arabia
Mohamed Wahib Naceur, Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University of Blida, Blida, Algeria
Abdulaziz Alghamdi, Mecanical Engineering Department, College of Engineering, University of Ha’il, Ha’il, Saudi Arabia
Mohamed Aichouni, Industrial Engineering Department, College of Engineering, University of Ha’il, Ha’il, Saudi Arabia
The aim of this work is to study the removal of methyl orange (MO) using electrocoagulation (EC) process. An electrochemical cell consisting of two iron electrodes, with 22.5 cm2 as an active surface, is used. Operating conditions are optimized such as nature and concentration of the supporting electrolyte, current density, pH, inter-electrode distance, MO concentration, and the connection mode. The decolorization degree obtained after 15 min of EC reached 83% at pH 7.25 with a current density of 64 A/m2. Depending on pH, three EC process mechanisms are suggested and less or more significant removal performances are obtained in these tests. The Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) observations show that the flocs formed by the EC process have two distinct morphologies: a lumpy structure and an amorphous structure, formed by particles of various sizes. The Energy Disperses X-ray (EDX) analysis of the surface of the flocs formed by the EC process shows a spectrum with levels of major elements of iron, oxygen and chloride, as well as carbon, sodium and aluminum are detected as minor elements. As proved in terms of MO elimination through this research and due to its several advantageous, EC process would find its convenient place in wastewater treatment technology.
Mohamed Wahib Naceur,
Decolorizing Methyl Orange by Fe-Electrocoagulation Process – A Mechanistic Insight, International Journal of Environmental Chemistry.
Vol. 2, No. 1,
2018, pp. 18-28.
S. Irki, D. Ghernaout, M. W. Naceur, Decolourization of Methyl Orange (MO) by Electrocoagulation (EC) using iron electrodes under a magnetic field (MF), Desalin. Water Treat. 79 (2017) 368-377.
D. Ghernaout, A. I. Al-Ghonamy, N. Ait Messaoudene, M. Aichouni, M. W. Naceur, F. Z. Benchelighem, A. Boucherit, Electrocoagulation of Direct Brown 2 (DB) and BF Cibacete Blue (CB) using aluminum electrodes, Sep. Sci. Technol. 50 (2015) 1413-1420.
C. Fernández, M. S. Larrechi, M. P. Callao, An analytical overview of processes for removing organic dyes from wastewater effluents, Trends Analyt. Chem. 29 (2010) 1202-1211.
M. R. Majdi, I. Danaee, S. Nikmanesh, Kinetic and thermodynamic investigations on the electrocoagulation of methyl orange from aqueous solution using aluminum electrodes, Bulgarian Chem. Commun. 48 (2016) 628-635.
S. A. Popli, U. D. Patel, Electrochemical decolourization of Reactive Black 5 in an undivided cell using Ti and graphite anodes: Effect of polypyrrole coating on anodes, J. Electrochem. Sci. Eng. 5 (2015) 145-156.
N. Kannan, G. Karthikeyan, N. Tamilselvan, Comparison of treatment potential of electrocoagulation of distillery effluent with and without activated Areca catechu nut carbon, J. Hazard. Mater. B137 (2006) 1803-1809.
 D. Ghernaout, Environmental principles in the Holy Koran and the Sayings of the Prophet Muhammad, Am. J. Environ. Prot. 6 (2017) 75-79.
D. Ghernaout, B. Ghernaout, A. Kellil, Natural organic matter removal and enhanced coagulation as a link between coagulation and electrocoagulation, Desalin. Water Treat. 2 (2009) 209-228.
D. Ghernaout, B. Ghernaout, A. Boucherit, M. W. Naceur, A. Khelifa, A. Kellil, Study on mechanism of electrocoagulation with iron electrodes in idealised conditions and electrocoagulation of humic acids solution in batch using aluminium electrodes, Desalin. Water Treat. 8 (2009) 91-99.
D. Ghernaout, A. I. Al-Ghonamy, M. W. Naceur, A. Boucherit, N. A. Messaoudene, M. Aichouni, A. A. Mahjoubi, N. A. Elboughdiri, Controlling coagulation process: From Zeta potential to streaming potential, Am. J. Environ. Prot. 4 (2015) 16-27.
D. Ghernaout, A. I. Al-Ghonamy, A. Boucherit, B. Ghernaout, M. W. Naceur, N. Ait Messaoudene, M. Aichouni, A. A. Mahjoubi, N. A. Elboughdiri, Brownian motion and coagulation process, Am. J. Environ. Prot. 4 (2015) 1-15.
D. Ghernaout, A. Simoussa, A. Alghamdi, B. Ghernaout, N. Elboughdiri, A. Mahjoubi, M. Aichouni, A. E. A. El-Wakil, Combining lime softening with alum coagulation for hard Ghrib dam water conventional treatment, Intern. J. Adv. Appl. Sci. 5 (2018) 61-70.
D. Ghernaout, Entropy in the Brownian motion (BM) and coagulation background, Colloid Surface Sci. 2(4) (2017) 143-161.
D. Ghernaout, A. Badis, G. Braikia, N. Matâam, M. Fekhar, B. Ghernaout, A. Boucherit, Enhanced coagulation for algae removal in a typical Algeria water treatment plant, Environ. Eng. Manag. J. 16 (2017) 2303-2315.
A. Boucherit, S. Moulay, D. Ghernaout, A. I. Al-Ghonamy, B. Ghernaout, M. W. Naceur, N. Ait Messaoudene, M. Aichouni, A. A. Mahjoubi, N. A. Elboughdiri, New trends in disinfection by-products formation upon water treatment, J. Res. Develop. Chem., 2015, DOI: 10.5171/2015.628833.
D. Ghernaout, A. Boucherit, Review of coagulation’s rapid mixing for NOM removal, J. Res. Develop. Chem., 2015, DOI: 10.5171/2015.926518.
B. Ghernaout, D. Ghernaout, A. Saiba, Algae and cyanotoxins removal by coagulation/flocculation: A review, Desalin. Water Treat. 20 (2010) 133-143.
D. Ghernaout, S. Moulay, N. Ait Messaoudene, M. Aichouni, M. W. Naceur, A. Boucherit, Coagulation and chlorination of NOM and algae in water treatment: A review, Intern. J. Environ. Monit. Analy. 2 (2014) 23-34.
D. Ghernaout, The hydrophilic/hydrophobic ratio vs. dissolved organics removal by coagulation - A review, J. King Saud Univ. – Sci. 26 (2014) 169-180.
D. Ghernaout, Advanced oxidation phenomena in electrocoagulation process: A myth or a reality?, Desalin. Water Treat. 51 (2013) 7536-7554.
A. Ghalwa, M. Nasser, N. B. Farhat, Removal of abamectin pesticide by electrocoagulation process using stainless steel and iron electrodes, J. Environ. Anal. Chem. 2 (2015): 134. doi:10.4172jreac.1000134.
D. Ghernaout, C. Benblidia, F. Khemici, Microalgae removal from Ghrib Dam (Ain Defla, Algeria) water by electroflotation using stainless steel electrodes, Desalin. Water Treat. 54 (2015) 3328-3337.
D. Ghernaout, A. I. Al-Ghonamy, S. Irki, A. Grini, M. W. Naceur, N. Ait Messaoudene, M. Aichouni, Decolourization of bromophenol blue by electrocoagulation process, Trends Chem. Eng. 15 (2014) 29-39.
D. Ghernaout, A. I. Al-Ghonamy, M. W. Naceur, N. Ait Messaoudene, M. Aichouni, Influence of operating parameters on electrocoagulation of C. I. disperse yellow 3, J. Electrochem. Sci. Eng. 4 (2014) 271-283.
P. Manikandan, P. N. Palanisamy, R. Baskar, P. Sakthisharmila, P. Sivakumar, A comparative study on the competitiveness of photo-assisted chemical oxidation (PACO) with electrocoagulation (EC) for the effective decolorization of reactive blue dye, Iran. J. Chem. Chem. Eng. Vol. 36 (2017) 71-85.
D. Ghernaout, M. W. Naceur, B. Ghernaout, A review of electrocoagulation as a promising coagulation process for improved organic and inorganic matters removal by electrophoresis and electroflotation, Desalin. Water Treat. 28 (2011) 287-320.
W.-L. Chou, C.-T. Wang, C.-W. Hsu, K.-Y. Huang, T.-C. Liu, Removal of total organic carbon from aqueous solution containing polyvinyl alcohol by electrocoagulation technology, Desalination 259 (2010) 103-110.
I. Linares-Hernández, C. Barrera-Díaz, G. Roa-Morales, B. Bilyeu, F. Ureña-Núñez, A combined electrocoagulation–sorption process applied to mixed industrial wastewater, J. Hazard. Mater. 144 (2007) 240-248.
D. Ghernaout, A. Badis, B. Ghernaout, A. Kellil, Application of electrocoagulation in Escherichia Coli culture and two surface waters, Desalination 219 (2008) 118-125.
D. Ghernaout, B. Ghernaout, A. Saiba, A. Boucherit, A. Kellil, Removal of humic acids by continuous electromagnetic treatment followed by electrocoagulation in batch using aluminium electrodes, Desalination 239 (2009) 295-308.
A. Saiba, S. Kourdali, B. Ghernaout, D. Ghernaout, In Desalination, from 1987 to 2009, the birth of a new seawater pretreatment process: Electrocoagulation-an overview, Desalin. Water Treat. 16 (2010) 201-217.
D. Ghernaout, The Holy Koran Revelation: Iron is a “sent down” metal, Am. J. Environ. Prot. 6 (2017) 101-104.
D. Ghernaout, B. Ghernaout, M. W. Naceur, Embodying the chemical water treatment in the green chemistry – A review, Desalination 271 (2011) 1-10.
D. Ghernaout, The best available technology of water/wastewater treatment and seawater desalination: Simulation of the open sky seawater distillation, Green Sustain. Chem. 3 (2013) 68-88.
D. Ghernaout, Electrocoagulation process: Achievements and green perspectives, Colloid Surface Sci. 3 (2018) 1-5.
D. Ghernaout, S. Irki, A. Boucherit, Removal of Cu2+ and Cd2+, and humic acid and phenol by electrocoagulation using iron electrodes, Desalin. Water Treat. 52 (2014) 3256-3270.
D. Ghernaout, B. Ghernaout, A. Boucherit, Effect of pH on electrocoagulation of bentonite suspensions in batch using iron electrodes, J. Disper. Sci. Technol. 29 (2008) 1272-1275.
D. Ghernaout, M. W. Naceur, A. Aouabed, On the dependence of chlorine by-products generated species formation of the electrode material and applied charge during electrochemical water treatment, Desalination 270 (2011) 9-22.
D. Ghernaout, A. Mariche, B. Ghernaout, A. Kellil, Electromagnetic treatment-bi-electrocoagulation of humic acid in continuous mode using response surface method for its optimization and application on two surface waters, Desalin. Water Treat. 22 (2010) 311-329.
N. K. Shammas, Coagulation and flocculation, in: L. K. Wang, Y.-T. Hung, N. K. Shammas (Eds.), Handbook of Environmental Engineering, Physicochemical Treatment Processes, vol. 3, The Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, 2005 (Chapter 4), 103-139.
D. Ghernaout, B. Ghernaout, From chemical disinfection to electrodisinfection: The obligatory itinerary?, Desalin. Water Treat. 16 (2010) 156-175.
Y. Zhang, Y. Cong, Q. Wang, Electrocoagulation-TiO2 photo-assisted combined system applied to methyl orange wastewater removal, Environ. Eng. Manag. J. 12 (2013) 517-526.
K.-W. Pi, Q. Xiao, H.-Q. Zhang, M. Xia, A. R. Gerson, Decolorization of synthetic Methyl Orange wastewater by electrocoagulation with periodic reversal of electrodes and optimization by RSM, Process Safety Environ. Protect. 92 (2014) 796-806.
C. J. Izquierdo, P. Canizares, M. A. Rodrigo, J. P. Leclerc, G. Valentin, F. Lapicque, Effect of the nature of the supporting electrolyte on the treatment of soluble oils by electrocoagulation, Desalination, 255 (2010) 15-20.
A. de Mello Ferreira, M. Marchesiello, P.-X. Thivel, Removal of copper, zinc and nickel present in natural water containing Ca2+ and HCO3- ions by electrocoagulation, Sep. Purif. Technol. 107 (2013) 109-117.
D. Ghernaout, B. Ghernaout, On the controversial effect of sodium sulphate as supporting electrolyte on electrocoagulation process: A review, Desalin. Water Treat. 27 (2011) 243-254.
N. Daneshvar, A. Oladegaragoze, N. Djafarzadeh, Decolorization of basic dye solutions by electrocoagulation: An investigation of the effect of operational parameters, J. Hazard. Mater. B129 (2006) 116-122.
M. Kobya, E. Demirbas, O. T. Can, M. Bayramoglu, Treatment of levafix orange textile dye solution by electrocoagulation, J. Hazard. Mater. 132 (2006) 183-188.
M. Y. A. Mollah, J. A. G. Gomes, K. K. Das, D. L. Cocke, Electrochemical treatment of Orange II dye solution—Use of aluminum sacrificial electrodes and floc characterization, J. Hazard. Mater. 174 (2010) 851-858.
S. Bayar, Y. Ş. Yıldız, A. E. Yılmaz, Ş. İrdemez, The effect of stirring speed and current density on removal efficiency of poultry slaughterhouse wastewater by electrocoagulation method, Desalination 280 (2010) 103-107.
D. Ghernaout, B. Ghernaout, Sweep flocculation as a second form of charge neutralisation – A review, Desalin. Water Treat. 44 (2012) 15-28.
D. Ghernaout, B. Ghernaout, On the concept of the future drinking water treatment plant: Algae harvesting from the algal biomass for biodiesel production––A Review, Desalin. Water Treat. 49 (2012) 1-18.
S. Cotillas, J. Llanos, P. Cañizares, S. Mateo, M. A. Rodrigo, Optimization of an integrated electrodisinfection/electrocoagulation process with Al bipolar electrodes for urban wastewater reclamation, Water Res. 47 (2013) 1741-1750.
M. I. Kerwick, S. M. Reddy, A. H. L. Chamberlain, D. M. Holt, Electrochemical disinfection, an environmentally acceptable method of drinking water disinfection?, Electrochim. Acta 50 (2005) 5270-5277.
B. Al Aji, Y. Yavuz, A. S. Koparal, Electrocoagulation of heavy metals containing model wastewater using monopolar iron electrodes, Sep. Purif. Technol. 86 (2012) 248-254.
M. Muthukumar, M. Thalamadai Karuppiah, G. Bhaskar Raju, Electrochemical removal of CI Acid orange 10 from aqueous solutions, Sep. Purif. Technol. 55 (2007) 198-205.
C. Phalakornkule, S. Polgumhang, W. Tongdaung, B. Karakat, T. Nuyut, Electrocoagulation of blue reactive, red disperse and mixed dyes, and application in treating textile effluent, Environ. Manage. 91 (2010) 918-926.
D. Belhout, D. Ghernaout, S. Djezzar-Douakh, A. Kellil, Electrocoagulation of Ghrib dam’s water (Algeria) in batch using iron electrodes, Desalin. Water Treat. 16 (2010) 1-9.
D. Ghernaout, M. W. Naceur, Ferrate(VI): In situ generation and water treatment – A review, Desalin. Water Treat. 30 (2011) 319-332.
S. Zodi, B. Merzouk, O. Potier, F. Lapicque, J.-P. Leclerc, Direct red 81 dye removal by a continuous flow electrocoagulation/flotation reactor, Sep. Purif. Technol. 108 (2013) 215-222.
N. Mameri, A. R. Yeddou, H. Lounici, D. Belhocine, H. Grib, B. Bariou, Defluoridation of Septentrional Sahara water of North Africa by electrocoagulation process using bipolar aluminium electrodes, Water Res. 32 (1998) 1604-1612.
N. Daneshvar, H. Ashassi Sorkhabi, M. B. Kasiri, Decolorization of dye solution containing Acid Red 14 by electrocoagulation with a comparative investigation of different electrode connections, J. Hazard. Mater. B112 (2004) 55-62.
K. K. Garg, B. Prasad, Development of Box Behnken design for treatment of terephthalic acid wastewater by electrocoagulation process: Optimization of process and analysis of sludge, J. Environ. Chem. Eng. 4 (2016) 178-190.