Assessment of Heavy Metals Concentration of Crude Oil Polluted Soil and Water in Some Coastal Communities of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria
International Journal of Environmental Chemistry
Volume 1, Issue 1, June 2017, Pages: 9-13
Received: Sep. 30, 2016;
Accepted: Nov. 1, 2016;
Published: Nov. 23, 2016
Views 2096 Downloads 145
Mercy Uwem Useh, Chemistry Advanced Research Centre, Sheda Science and Technology Complex, Kwali, Abuja, Nigeria
Pius Patrick Ikokoh, Chemistry Advanced Research Centre, Sheda Science and Technology Complex, Kwali, Abuja, Nigeria
The level of heavy metals concentrations of crude oil polluted soil and water was assessed in some coastal communities (Eket, Ibeno, EsitEket and Onna) of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The mean values of the heavy metals determined were: Cr(0.1544±0.01), Cd(0.0137±0.00), Pb(0.0340±0.04), Ca(64.9360±1.55), Ni(0.0112±0.02), Cu(0.0164±0.00), Co(0.00), Mn(1.0067±1.54), Fe(0.6526±0.13), Zn(0.1175±0.04) for water samples and Cr(0.5595±0.12), Cd(0.2139±0.17), Pb(0.1559±0.03), Ca(1.7940±0.62), Ni(0.1685±0.02), Cu(0.1398±0.04), Co(0.0180±0.01), Mn(5.7187±1.34), Fe(9.5787±0.89), Zn(0.2626±0.22) for soil samples. The results showed that calcium was very high in water Ca(64.9360±1.55) samples compared to the soil Ca(1.7940±0.62) samples which suggest that the water is hard, though these values were within the WHO standards. Also, cobalt was not detected in water samples. All other heavy metals determined were above the WHO permissible limits for water and soil samples except zinc and copper which were within the acceptable limits. In all, the concentration of heavy metals in the soil samples was observed to be higher than the water samples which might be due to leaching and bioaccumulation. Thus, a further comprehensive study is recommended and also, intervention strategies like remediation, to better the life of the people.
Mercy Uwem Useh,
Pius Patrick Ikokoh,
Assessment of Heavy Metals Concentration of Crude Oil Polluted Soil and Water in Some Coastal Communities of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria, International Journal of Environmental Chemistry.
Vol. 1, No. 1,
2017, pp. 9-13.
Nwilo, P. C., Badejo, O. T., (2005). Impacts and Management of Oil spill Pollution along the Nigerian coastal area.flawww.fig.net/pub/fig pub/pub36/chapters/chapter-8pdf.
Amadi, A., Abbey, S. D. and Nma, A. (2013) Chronic effects of oil spill on soil properties and micro flora of a rainforest ecosystem in Nigeria. Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 86, 1-11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00279142.
Salomons, W. and Forstner, U. (2009). Trace metal analysis on polluted sediments. Part 2 Evaluation of environmental impact. Environ. Technol. Lett 1: 506–517.
Purves, D. (1999). Trace element contamination of the environment. Elsevier, Amsterdam.20-28.
Leschber, R., R. D. Davis and P. L`Hermite, (2006). Chemical Methods for Assessing Bioavailable Metals in Water and Soils. Elsevier, Amsterdam.
Alloway B. J and Arye D. C. (1994). Chemical principles of Environmental Pollution. Blackie London pp. 101-200.
Horsfall, M. J. and Spiff, A. I. (2002). Distribution and partitioning of trace metals in sediments. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 78: 309-326. Kluwer Academic Publishers-Netherlands.
Xiano, X. and Biu C. (1993). Trace Metal Analysis on Polluted Sediments. Environmental Technological letters, I. p. 506-17.
USEPA 3050B (1996) Acid digestion of sediments, sludges and soils. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
Forstner, U. R., Lescber, G. I. (2008). Chemical Methods of Assessing Bioavailable Metal in Water and Soils. Elsevier, London. pp. 1-30.
APHA (American Public Health Association) (2003) Standard Methods for the Examinations of Water and Wastewater, 21th edition, Washington DC.
Gobo, A. E (1988). Relationship between rainfall trends and flooding in the Niger-Benue River Basin. The Journal of Meteorology 13 (132) 318-19.
Miller, W. P; and Mcfee, W. W. (2005). Distribution of Cadmium, Zinc, Copper and Lead in soils of industrial Northwestern Indiana. J. Environment. Qual. 12: 29-33.
Lambert, M., Pierzynski. G., Erickson, L. and Schnoor, J. (1997). Contaminated land and its reclamation, The Royal Chemical Soc. Press. pp. 91–102.
Efere, M. I. and Akpofure, U. J. (2012). Oil SpillageIn Nigeria's Niger Delta. Urhobo Historical Society. Pp. 8–9.
Nelson, D. W. and Sommers, L. E. (2010). Methods of Soil Analysis. 2nd ed. Vol. 2, London: Madison Inc.
Salve, V. B. and Hiware C. J. (2008): Study on water quality of Wanparakalpa reservoir Nagpur, District Beed. Marathwada region, J. Aqua. Biol., 21(2): 113-117.
Iwegbue, C. M. A., Emuh, F. N., Isirimah, N. O. and Egun, A. C. (2007). Fractionation, characterization and speciation of heavy metals in composts and compst-amended soils. African Journal of Biotechnology. pp. 67–72.
Chukwuma, M. C., E. T. Eshett, E. U. Onweremadu and M. A. Okon, 2010. Zinc availability in relation to selected soil properties in a crude oil polluted water. Int. J. Environ. Sci. Tech., 7: 261-270.
WHO (World Health Organization). WHO International Standards for Drinking Water, (1998), 10-15.
Kargin, F. H. (2012). Water, Air and Soil Pollution. Int. J. Envir. Analyt. Chem.90 (3-4), 557-562.
Xian, V. J. And Wespe, F. Y. (2011). Effect of Chemical Forms of Cadmium, Zinc, and Lead in Polluted Soils on their Uptake by Cabbage Plants. Plant and Soil.113: 257–264.
Karadede-Akin, H. E. andUnlu, A. T. (2007). Environ. Monit. Assess. 131 (1-3), 323-337.
M. Yamazaki, Y. Tanizaki, T. Shimkawa, (2006). Environmental Pollution. 94(1), 83-90. Blackie. Glasgow and London.