Please enter verification code
Confirm
A Retrospective Investigation of a Measles Outbreak in a District in North-western Nigeria
World Journal of Public Health
Volume 2, Issue 3, September 2017, Pages: 96-101
Received: Apr. 6, 2017; Accepted: Apr. 26, 2017; Published: Jun. 8, 2017
Views 2013      Downloads 135
Authors
Omole Victoria Nanben, Department of Community Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaduna State University (KASU), Kaduna, Nigeria
Musa Emmanuel, World Health Organisation (WHO), Abuja, Nigeria
Audu Onyemocho, Department of Epidemiology & Community Medicine, College of Medicine, Benue State University, Makurdi, Nigeria
Gajere Julius, Kaduna State Ministry of Health (SMOH), Kaduna, Nigeria
Peter Elisha, Kaduna State Ministry of Health (SMOH), Kaduna, Nigeria
Article Tools
Follow on us
Abstract
The prevalence of measles has been drastically reduced by well over 70% globally, through vaccination with a proven and potent vaccine. Despite these efforts, children under 5 years of age in many developing countries remain plagued by it’s scourge in recurrent waves of epidemics. This study retrospectively investigated an outbreak of measles by reviewing surveillance, epidemiologic and laboratory records, including Integrated Disease Surveillance & Response (IDSR) forms, measles line lists, routine immunization reports, vaccine ledgers etc. A total of 422 cases were reported, 96% of whom were children under 5 years. Estimated mortalities were 20 (representing a case fatality rate of 4.7%). Vaccination among cases was very low as most of the children (99%) had never received any measles vaccine. Intensified efforts, in order to increase herd immunity among birth cohorts through routine immunization and innovative methods of positively influencing resistant sub-groups within the population towards embracing vaccination are non-negotiable in attaining higher immunization coverages.
Keywords
Vaccines, Outbreak, Immunization, Measles, CFR
To cite this article
Omole Victoria Nanben, Musa Emmanuel, Audu Onyemocho, Gajere Julius, Peter Elisha, A Retrospective Investigation of a Measles Outbreak in a District in North-western Nigeria, World Journal of Public Health. Vol. 2, No. 3, 2017, pp. 96-101. doi: 10.11648/j.wjph.20170203.12
Copyright
Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
References
[1]
Nandy R, Handzel T, Zaneidou M, Biey J, Coddy RZ, Perry R, et al. Case-fatality rate during a measles outbreak in eastern Niger in 2003. Clin Infect Dis 2006; 42:322-8.
[2]
World Health Organization (WHO): Measles- Fact sheet. Accessed on the 21st of August, 2016. Available at: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs286/en/
[3]
Ekpemauzor CN. Current Measles Status and Plans for Measles Control in 2015-16 in Nigeria. Presentation at the 13th Annual Meeting of the Measles Rubella Initiative, 9th-10th Sept. 2014 at the American Red Cross National Hqs, Washington DC, U.S.A.
[4]
Sawa BA and Buhari B. Temperature Variability and Outbreak of Meningitis and Measles in Zaria, Northern Nigeria. Research J of Applied Sci, Eng and Tech 2011; 3(5): 399-402, ISSN: 2040-7467.
[5]
Grais RF, Dubray C, Gerstl S, Guthmann JP, Djibo A, Nargaye KD, Coker J, Alberti KP, Cochet A, Ihekweazu C, Nathan N, Payne L, Porten K, Sauvageot D, Schimmer B, Fermon F, Burny ME, Hersh BS, Guerin PJ. Unacceptably high mortality related to measles epidemics in Niger, Nigeria, and Chad. PLoS Med 2007; 4(1):e16.
[6]
The Johns Hopkins University and Moss W. Measles: 2007; pg. 32-6.
[7]
Vaisberg A, Alvarez J0, Hernandez H, Guillen D, Chu P and Colarossi A. Loss of Maternally-Acquired Measles Antibodies in Well-Nourished Infants and Response to Measles Vaccination, Peru. Am J of Pub Health 1990; 80(6):736-38.
[8]
Kassem TG, Ndam JN. A stochastic modeling of recurrent measles epidemics. Sci World J. 2008; 3(4):29-32.
[9]
Federal Ministry of Health/ World Health Organization. Guidelines for measles surveillance and outbreak investigation in Nigeria. Abuja, Nigeria. 2006; 5-40.
[10]
Cockcroft A, Usman MU, Nyamucherera OF, Emori H, Duke B, Umar NA and Andersson N. Why children are not vaccinated against measles: a cross-sectional study in two Nigerian States. Archives of Pub Health 2014; 72:48, DOI: 10.1186/2049-3258-72-48.
[11]
Ambe JP, Omotara BA and Mandu-Baba M. Perceptions, beliefs and practices of mothers in sub-urban and rural areas towards measles and measles vaccination in Northern Nigeria. Trop Doct 2001 Apr; 31(2):89-90.
[12]
World Health Organization (WHO): Immunization, Vaccines and Biologicals. Immunization Highlights: 2010- Reaching more people with existing vaccines. Accessed on the 10th of August, 2016. Available at: http://www.who.int/immunization/newsroom/highlights/2012/en/index3.html
[13]
Odegaa CC, Fatireguna AA and Osagbemi GK. Completeness of suspected measles reporting in a southern district of Nigeria. Pub Health 2010; 124(1): 24–27.
[14]
Adeoye IA, Dairo MD, Adekunle LV, Adedokun HO and Makanjuola J. Investigation of a measles outbreak in a rural Nigerian community – The Aladura experience. Afr J of Microbiol Research 2010; 4(5):360-366.
[15]
Coronado F, Musad N, El Tayeb El SA, Haithamie S, Dabbaghf A, Mahoneyg F, Nandy R and Cairns L. Retrospective Measles Outbreak Investigation: Sudan, 2004. J of Trop Paed 2006; 52 (5): i doi:10.1093/tropej/fml048
[16]
Salako AA and Sholeye OO. Control of Measles in Nigeria: A Critical Review of the Literature. Brit J of Med & Med Research 2015; 5(2): 160-168; Article no. BJMMR.2015.017
[17]
Wolfson LJ, Grais RF, Luquero FJ, Birmingham ME and Strebel PM. Estimates of measles case fatality ratios: a comprehensive review of community-based studies. Int. J. Epidemiol 2009; 38 (1): 192-205. doi: 10.1093/ije/dyn224
[18]
Nandy R, Handzel T, Zaneidou M, Biey J, Coddy RZ, Perry R, Strebel P and Cairns L. Case-fatality rate during a measles outbreak in eastern Niger in 2003. Clin Infect Dis 2006; 42:322-8.
[19]
Byass P, Adedeji MD, Mongdem JG, Zwandor AC and Brew-Graves SH. Assessment and Possible control of endemic measles in urban Nigeria. J Pub Health Med 1995; 17: 140–145.
[20]
Sudfeld CR and Halsey NA. Measles Case Fatality Ratio in India: A Review of Community Based Studies. Indian Paediatr 2009; 46:983-89.
[21]
Levy JK, Curtis S, Zimmer C and Speizer IS. Assessing Gaps and Poverty-Related Inequalities in the Public and Private Sector Family Planning Supply Environment of Urban Nigeria. J Urban Health 2014; 91(1): 186–210.
[22]
Aaby P and Lamb WH. The role of sex in the transmission of measles in a Gambian village. J of Infec 1991; 22(3):287-92. doi: 10.1016/S0163-4453(05)80014-3
[23]
Aaby P. Influence of cross-sex transmission on measles mortality in rural Senegal. The Lancet 1992; 340(8816):388-91 doi: 10.1016/0140-6736(92)91470-S
[24]
Bhuiya A, Wojtyniak B, D’Souza S, Nahar L, Shaikh K. Measles case fatality among the under-fives: a multi-variate analysis of risk factors in a rural area of Bangladesh. Soc Sci Med 1987; 24: 439–43.
[25]
Adu FD, Ikusika A and Omotade O. Measles Outbreak in Ibadan: Clinical Serological and Virological Identification of Affected Children in Selected Hospitals. J of Infec 1997; 35:241-245.
[26]
Ferrari MJ, Djibo A, Grais RF, Bharti N, Grenfell BT and Bjornstad ON. Rural-urban gradient in seasonal forcing of measles transmission in Niger. Proc. R. Soc. B 2010; 277:2775–2782. doi:10.1098/rspb.2010.0536.
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-983-5186