Antioxidant Activity of Methanol Extracts From Various Plant Parts and Their Potential Roles in Protecting the Liver Disorders Induced by Benzo(a)pyrene
In this study, we evaluate the antioxidant effect and total phenolics content of four selected plant parts [prickly pear peel (PPP), turmeric rhizomes (TR), red onion skin (ROS) and eggplant peel (EP)] methanolic extracts and their potential role in improving the liver disorders induced by an ubiquitous food pollutant i.e. benzo(a)pyrene (BP). The selected plant parts methanolic extracts showed considerable differences in antioxidant activity (AA=57.51 to 90.73 %) and total phenolics (11.29 to 211.45 mg GAE. g -1). When all selected plant parts methanolic extracts were included in the statistical analysis, there was a positive and highly significant (r2=0.597-0.919, p≤ 0.05) relationship between total phenolics and antioxidant activity. Also, the antioxidant potential of those methanolic extracts against BP was also studied in vitro in a model using Catfish liver cells in homogenate culture. BP induced many metabolic disorders and oxidative stress in fish liver homogenate namely a significant decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH) and albumin (Alb) content, and increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) formation after 24 hours of culture. Co-treatment of liver homogenate with BP and the tested selected plant parts extracts as well as their mixture by concentration 0.75% exhibited some protection effects through decreasing the rates of all those metabolic disorders and oxidative stress. That decreasing rates in different adverse effects was depending on the type of the plant parts applied. The highest therapeutic effect was recorded for the mixture of the selected plant parts extracts (PPP+TR+ROS+EP by equal amounts) followed by ROS, EP, TR and PPP, respectively. This study indicates that the compounds present in those selected extracts contain interesting bioactivities which improve many adverse effects i.e. metabolic disorders and oxidative stress in liver cells induced by BP.
Antioxidant Activity of Methanol Extracts From Various Plant Parts and Their Potential Roles in Protecting the Liver Disorders Induced by Benzo(a)pyrene, World Journal of Public Health.
Vol. 2, No. 1,
2017, pp. 38-50.
Crawford, J. M. (1999). The Liver and the Biliary Tract., Pathologic Basis of Disease. Eds. R. S. Cotran, V. Kumar, and T. Collins. W. B. Saunders Company: Philadelphia, USA.
Lehman, E. M. (2008). Dynamics of liver disease in Egypt: Shifting paradigms of a complex etiology, PhD Thesis, The University of Michigan, MI.
Elhassaneen, Y. A. (1996). Biochemical and technological studies on pollution of fish with pesticides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Ph.D. Thesis., Faculty of Agriculture, Mansoura University, Egypt.
Kebamo, S.; Shibiru T. and Bekesho G. (2015). The Role of Biotransformation in Drug Discovery and Development 6 J Drug MetabToxicol:5: 1-13.
Lawrence, S. F. and Emmet B. K. (2012). Handbook of Liver Disease, 3rd ed. Elsevier Saunders, Philadelphia, PA.
Harvey, R. G. (1982). Polycyclic hydrocarbons and cancer. Am. Sci., 80: 386.
David, K. M.; Bowman, E. D.; Parker, N. B.; Caporaso, N. E. and Weston, A. (1992). Determinants of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adducts in human placenta. Cancer Res.52:1499-503.
Elhassaneen, Y. A. (2004). The effect ofcharcoal broiled meat consumption on antioxidant defence system of erythrocytes and antioxidant vitamins in plasma. Nutrition Research, 24 (6): 435-446.
WHO, World Health Organization. (1984). World Health Organization guidelines for drinking water quality, Geneva, 130.
Harvey, R. G. (1985). Polycyclic hydrocarbons and carcinogenesis. ACS Symp. Ser. 283, American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C.
Hawkins, E. W.; Walker, W. W.; Overstreet, R. M.; Lytle, T. F.; and Lytle, J. S. (1988). Dose-related carcinogenic effect of water-borne benzo(a) pyrene on livers of two small fish species. Ecotoxicology and environmental safety, 16: 219-231.
Elhassaneen, Y. A; Khater, O. M. and Morsey, A. A. (1997). The effect of vitamins on the cancer initiation induced by some food chemical carcinogenic pollutants in vitro. The Second Conference: The Role of Women and Egyptian Associations in Environment Protection and Community Development (25-26 August), Dept. of Home Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, Alexandria University, Egypt, pp. 252-282.
Elhassaneen, Y. (2002). New and quickly biological method for detection the potential chemical toxins and/or carcinogens in foods. Proceedings of2nd scientific Conference on Foodborne Contamination and Egyptian’s Health (24–24 April), Faculty of Agriculture, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt, pp 371-394.
Hawkins, E. W.; Walker, W. W.; Overstreet, R. M.; Lytle, T. F.; and Lytle, J. S. (1990). Carcinogenic effects of some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on the Japanese medaka and Guppy in waterborne exposures. The Science of the Total Environment, 94: 155-167.
Mackenzie, K.; and Angevine, D. M. (1981). Infertility in mice exposed in utero to benzo(a)pyrene. Biol. Reprod., 24(1): 183-191.
Minjun C.; Ayako S.; Jürgen B.; Raْl J. and Isabel L. (2015). Drug-induced liver injury: Interactions between drug properties and host factors Journal of Hepatology63:503-514.
Elizabeth I. O. and Magali C. (2014). Culinary herbs and spices: their bioactive properties, the contribution of polyphenols and the challenges in deducing their true health benefits. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 15: 19183-19202.
Rathaur, P., Waseem, R., Ramteke, P. W., & John, S. A. (2012). Turmeric: The golden spice of life. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, 3, 1987-1994.
Chattopadhyay, I.; Biswas, K.; Bandopadhyay, U.; and Banerjee, R. K. (2004): Turmeric and curcumin: Biological actions and medicinal applications. Curr Sci., 87: 44-53.
Payton, F.; Sandusky, P.; and Alworth, W. L. (2007). NMR study of the solution structure of curcumin. J. Nat. Prod., pp: 143-146.
Aggarwal, B. B.; Sundaram, C.; Malani, N.; and Ichikawa, H. (2007): Curcumin the Indian solid gold. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol., 595: 1–75.
Schieber, A.; Stintzing, F. C. and Carle, R. (2001). By-products of plant food processing as a source of functional compounds–recent developments. Trends Food Sci. Technol.; 12; 401-413.
Elhassaneen, Y.; Safaa El-Waseef, Naglaa Fathy and Sayed Ahmed, S. (2016-a). Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Potential of Food Industry By-products in Egypt. American Journal of Food and Nutrition, 4 (1): 1-7.
Singh, N. P.; Mccoy, M. T.; Tice, R. R. and Schneider, E. L. (2009). A simple technique for quantitation of low levels of DNA damage in individual cells. Experimental Cell Research; 175: 184-191.
Cao, G.;Sofic, E. and Prior. R. L. (1996). Antioxidant capacity of tea and common vegetables. J. Agric. Food Chem., 44: 3426-3431.
Mazza, G.;Cacace, J. E. and Kay, C. D. (2004). Methods of analysis for anthocyanins in plants and biological fluids. J. AOAC Int., 87: 129-145.
Seung-Cheol Lee (2011). Antioxidant activity of different parts of eggplant. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 5(18): 4610-4615.
Hassan, A. A. (2011). The effect of phytochemicals on prevention and/or treatment of liver cancer induced by some food pollutants. Ph.D. Thesis, Faculty of Home Economics, Minoufiya University, Shebin El-Kom, Egypt.
Tesoriere LM, Butera D, Pintaudi AM, Allegra M, Livrea MA (2004) Supplementation with cactus pear (Opuntiaficus-indica) fruit decreases oxidative stress in healthy humans: a comparative study with vitamin C. Am J ClinNutr 80(2): 391-395.
Elhassaneen, Y.;Sherif, S. Ragab and Saleh, A. (2016-b). Effect of Selected Plant Parts Extracts on Liver Injuries Induced by CCl4 in vitro. Pyrex Journal of Medicinal Plant Research, 2 (2): 8-20.
Cardador-Martínez, A.; Jiménez-Martínez, C. and Sandoval, G. (2011). Revalorization of cactus pear (Opuntia spp.) wastes as a source of antioxidants. Ciê e Tecn. Alim, 31: 782-788.
Abou-Elella, F. and Ali, R. (2014). Antioxidant and Anticancer Activities of Different Constituents Extracted from Egyptian Prickly Pear Cactus (Opuntia Ficus-Indica) Peel. Biochem Anal Biochem, 3: 158.
Amin, I.; Zamaliah, M. and Chin, W. (2004). Total antioxidant activity and phenolic content in selected vegetables. Food Chemestry; 87(4): 581-586.
Marco, G. (1968). A rapid method for evaluation of antioxidants. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 45: 594-598.
Al-Saikhan, M.; Howard, L. and Miller, J. (1995). Antioxidant activity and total phenolics in different genotypes of potato (Solanum tuberosum, L.). J. Food Sci., 60 (2): 341-343.
Singleton, V. and Rossi, J. (1965). Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolybdic-phosphotungstic acid reagents. Am. J. Enol. Vitic., 16: 144-158.
Tietze F. (1969). Enzymic method for quantitative determination of nanogram amounts of total and oxidized glutathione: applications to mammalian blood and other tissues. Anal. Biochem. 27, 502-522.
Geoff D. and Brian S. (2002). A Handbook ofStatistical Analyses using SAS, Chapman & Hall/CRC, Washington, D.C.
Saleh, A. M. (2016). Study the effect of nutritional antioxidant on liver injuries induced by carbon tetrachloride in vitro". Ph.D. Thesis in Nutrition and Food Science, Faculty of Home Economics, Minoufiya University, Egypt.
Montenegro, M. A., Marya L. Boiero, Lorena Valle and Claudio D. Borsarelli (2012). Gum Arabic: More Than an Edible Emulsifier, In Tech Europe, University Campus STePRi, Slavka Krautzeka 83/A, 51000 Rijeka, Croatia.
Ahmed, S. K. (2015). Utilization of by-products of food industries in the production of snacks with high nutritional value and healthy safe " Ph.D. Thesis in Nutrition and Food Science, Faculty of Home Economics, Minoufiya University, Egypt.
Velioglu, Y. S.; Mazza, G.; Gao, L. and Oomah, B. D. (1998). Antioxidant activity and total phenolics in selected fruits, vegetables and grain products. J. Agric. Food Chem., 46 (10): 4113-4117.
Kunyanga, C. N.; Imungi, J. K.; Okoth, M. W.; Biesalski, H. K. and Vellingiri, V. (2012). Total phenolic content, antioxidant and antidiabetic properties of methanolic extract of raw and traditionally processed Kenyan indigenous food ingredients. LWT–Food Sci. Technol., 45(2): 269–276.
El-Mokadem, K. (2010). The effect of technological treatments on phytochemical properties of some foods. M.Sc. Thesis in Nutrition and Food Science, Faculty of Home Economics, Minoufiya University, Egypt.
Sayed Ahmed, S. (2016). Nutritional and technological studies on the effect of phytochemicals on obesity injuries and their related diseases by using experimental animals Ph.D. Thesis in Home Economics (Nutrition and Food Science), Faculty of Specific Education, Port Said University, Egypt.
Majid, S.; Khanduja, K. L.; Gandhi, R. K.; Kapur, S. and Sharma, R. R. (1991). Influence of ellagic acid on antioxidant defense system and lipid peroxidation in mice. Biochemistry and Pharmacology journal, 42(7): 1441-1445.
Laranjinha, J.; Almeida, L. and Madeira, V. (1994). Reactivity of dietary phenolic acids with peroxyl radicals: antioxidant activity upon low-ensity lipoprotein peroxidation. Biochem. Pharmacol, 48(3): 487-494.
Shalaby, H. H. (2015). The effect of some food products mixed with plant parts on blood sugar levels of rats " Ph.D. Thesis in Nutrition and Food Science, Faculty of Home Economics, Minoufiya University, Egypt.
Beatty, P. W. and Reed, D. J. (1980): Involvement of the cystathionine pathway in the biosynthesis of glutathione by isolated rat hepatocytes. Arch Biochem Biophys, 204: 80-87.
Larsson, B. K.; Sahllerg, G. P.; Eriksson, A. T.; and Busk, L. A. (1983): Polycyclic aromatic hsdrocarbons in grilled food. J. Agric. Fd Chem., 31: 867-873.
Halliwell, B. and Gutteridge, J. M. (1985). Lipid peroxidation a radical chain reaction. In: Halliwell, B., Gutteridge, J. M. C. (Eds.), Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine. Clarendon Press, Oxford, pp: 139-205.
Sudheesh, S.; Sandhya, C. andSarah Koshy, A. (1999): Antioxidant activity of flavonoids from Solanummelongena. Phytother Res. 13(5):393-396.
Matsuzoe, M.; Yamaguchi, S.;Kawanobu, Y.; Watanabe, H. and Sakata, Y. (1999). Effect of Dark Treatment of the Eggplant on Fruit Skin Color and Its Anthocyanin Components. Journal of the Japanese Society for Horti-cultural Science, 68, 1, 138-145.
Srinivasan, K. (2005). Plant foods in the management of diabetes mellitus: Spices as beneficial antidiabetic food adjuncts. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 56(6): 399-414.
Jurenka, J. S. (2009). Anti-inflammatory properties of curcumin, a major constituent of Curcuma longa: a review of preclinical and clinical research. Altern Med Rev., 14(2): 141-153.
Franca, B. and Harri, V. (2009). Allium Vegetables and Organosulfur Compounds: Do They Help Prevent Cancer? Environmental Health Perspectives, 109(9): 893-902.
Albano, C.; Carmine N.; Noemi T.; Carmela G.; Giovanni M.; Antonio M.; Luigi D. and Federica B. (2015). Betalains, Phenols and Antioxidant Capacity in Cactus Pear [Opuntiaficus-indica(L.) Mill.] Fruits from Apulia (South Italy) Genotypes. Antioxidants, 4, 269-280.
Boone, C. W.; Steele, V. E.; and Kelloff, G. J. (1992): Screening of chemopreventive (anticarcinogenic) compounds in rodents. Mut Res., 267: 251-255.
Chauhan, D. P. (2002). Chemotherapeutic potential of curcumin for colorectal cancer. Current pharmaceutical Design, 8(19): 1695 -1706.
Kaur, M.; Kaur, A. and Sharma (2012). R. Pharmacological actions of Opuntiaficusindica: A review. J. Appl. Pharm. Sci., 2: 15–18.
Zheng, A.; Li, H.; Wang, X.; Feng, Z.; Xu, J.; and Cao, K. (2013): Anticancer effect of a curcumin derivative B63: ROS production and mitochondrial dysfunction. Current Cancer Drug Targets 14(2):156-166.
Fayez, S. (2016). The effect of turmeric and curcumin on liver cancer induced by benzo[a]pyrene in rats. M.Sc. Thesis in Home Economics (Nutrition and Food Science), Faculty of Specific Education, Port Said University, Egypt.
Ranucci, C. S.; Kumar, A.; Batra, S. P. and Moghe, P. V. (2000). Control of hepatocyte function on collagen foams: sizing matrix pores toward selective induction of 2-D and 3-D cellular morphogenesis. Biomaterials 21: 783-793.
Morgan, E. H. and Peters, T. J. (1971). The biosynthesis of rat serum albumin. V. Effect of protein depletion and refeeding on albumin and transferrin synthesis. J Biol Chem 246: 3500-3507.
Bokhari, M.; Ross J.; Neil R. and Stefan, A. (2007). Culture of HepG2 liver cells on three dimensional polystyrene scaffolds enhances cell structure and function during toxicological challenge. J. Anat. 211: 567-576.