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Inequality Analysis of Main Health Indicators Among Children Under 5 years / Iraq 2016
World Journal of Public Health
Volume 1, Issue 1, December 2016, Pages: 28-32
Received: Oct. 15, 2016; Accepted: Oct. 28, 2016; Published: Nov. 15, 2016
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Abeer Gatea, Ministry of Health, Al-Rusafa Health Directorate, Therapeutic Department, Baghdad, Iraq
Reza Majdzadeh, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Knowledge Utilization Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
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The major challenges facing the health system in Iraq is critical damage over the past two decades, with significant damage to infrastructure and conditions that have forced a large number of the trained and experienced health staff leaving the country. Iraq today faces economic and human development challenges including poverty, malnutrition and insecurity. Such conditions result in fewer resources for social sectors, including health. The study aimed to assess the inequality level in children under 5 years across 6 indicators with 4 dimensions overtime in Iraq and was compared with other benchmark countries. A descriptive study was conducted based on data obtained from the two Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) (2006 and 2011) through the WHO health equity assessment toolkit (HEAT). Six Child health indicators such as (DTP3 immunization coverage among one-year-olds, children with diarrhea receiving ORS, children aged < 5 years with pneumonia symptoms taken to a health facility, underweight prevalence in children aged < 5 years, wasting prevalence in children aged<5 years and early initiation of breastfeeding (in the two or three years preceding the survey). Inequality were assess based on four inequality dimensions (education, place of residence, sex and subnational). Ratio and difference were used to compare inequality on residence and sex. Moreover, inequality regarding education level were determined with slop index. Theil index was also used to assess subnational regions inequality. For all dimensions used in this study, children in the richest urban households were are more receive immunization than children from the poorest households in all region. Female children were more received the service than male children. Inequality in DTP3 immunization coverage among one year’s old from rural area was high. However, early initiation of breastfeeding in the 2 or 3 preceding survey inequality was high among urban children than rural. Inequality among children those parents attained secondary education was lower than those from parents attained primary and no education. All the dimensions used to assess inequality were shown better access for all indicators. When we comparison Iraq with other countries such as Pakistan, Jordan, based on education status, Iraq was showed medium inequality coverage in wasting prevalence among children <5, however highest inequality in early initiation of breast feeding coverage than Jordan.
Inequality, Indicator, Breastfeeding, Children, Iraq, Subnational, Immunization
To cite this article
Abeer Gatea, Reza Majdzadeh, Inequality Analysis of Main Health Indicators Among Children Under 5 years / Iraq 2016, World Journal of Public Health. Vol. 1, No. 1, 2016, pp. 28-32. doi: 10.11648/j.wjph.20160101.15
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This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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