Nigeria is a heavily polluted country. The problems and challenges of hazardous waste management in Nigeria is enormous. There are enough laws and policies on hazardous waste in Nigeria. There are institutions charged with implementation, execution and enforcing legislations and regulations of hazardous waste in Nigeria. These institutions are not adequately empowered to implement and execute policies, or enforce environmental laws. The simple execution of policies on ground and the enforcement of existing laws in the country can improve the environmental situation in Nigeria if environmental institutions are strengthened financially and politically.
Edward-Ekpu Douglas Uwagbale,
Hazardous Waste Management and Challenges in Nigeria, World Journal of Public Health.
Vol. 1, No. 1,
2016, pp. 1-5.
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) World Fact Book. 2016 Directorate of Intelligence In https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ni.html. Retrieved on September 2nd, 2016.
O. Ogungbuyi, I. C. Nnorom, O. Osibanjo and M. Schluep. E-Waste Country Assessment Nigeria. E-Waste Africa project of the secretariat of the Basel Convention. Basel Convention Coordinating Centre, Nigeria. 2012.
H. Ikhariale. The Koko Incident: The Environment and the Law, In Shyllon, F (ed) The Law and the Environment in Nigeria, Ibadan, Vantage Publishers. 1989.
Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA) Act 1988 No. 58.
Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA) Act 1992 No. 59.
M. T. Odubela and I. I. Omoniyi. Compliance Monitoring in Nigeria’s Industries: 4th International Conference on Environmental Enforcement, 2001, pp. 123-127.
Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA) Act 1999 No. 14.
National Oil Spill Detection and Response Agency (NOSDRA) (Establishment) Act, 2006. Federal Republic of Nigeria Official Gazette, Vol. 93. No. 72, 2006, pp. A407-425.
National Environmental Standards Regulatory and Enforcement Agency (NESREA). Corporate Strategic Plan: Building Capacity, Enforcing Compliance. 2009-2012.
Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA). The National Guidelines and Standards for Environmental Pollution Control in Nigeria. Federal Environmental Protection Agency, 1991.
Niger Delta Environmental Survey (NDES). Environment and Socio-economic Characteristics. Phase 1 Report, Port Harcourt. 1997.
Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC). Annual Statistical Bulletin, 1997.
V. E. Kalu. Toxic Wastes and The Nigerian Environment: an appraisal. Department of Private & Property Law University of Benin, Benin City. 2006.
S. Crayford. Conflict and conflict resolution in Africa. Africa today. Vol. 42, No. 2, 1996, pp. 183-197.
World Bank. Defining an Environmental Development Strategy for the Niger Delta. Vol. 2, 1995. Industry and Energy Operations Division (West Central Africa Department). Washington D. C.
World Bank. World Development Report, 2000/2001. Industry and Energy Operations Division (West Central Africa Department). Washington D. C.
Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN). Central Bank of Nigeria, Statistical Bulletin, and Annual Report, 1998, Abuja, Nigeria
Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN). Statement of Accounts, 2000. CBN. Abuja, Nigeria
Newswatch Magazine, Vol. 14, June 26. 1988. pp. 29.
Y. Amoyaw-Osei, O. O. Agyekum, J. A. Pwamang, E. Mueller, R. Fasko, and M. Schluep. Ghana E-Waste Country Assessment: report of component 1&2 of the UNEP SBC e-waste Africa project for Ghana. Accra, Ghana. Green Advocacy, Ghana & Empa, Switzerland. 2011.
O. Osibanjo and I. C. Nnorom. The challenge of electronic waste e-waste management in developing countries. Waste Manage Res Vol. 25, 2007, pp. 489–501.
M. Amachree. Update on E-Waste Management in Nigeria: a presentation made at the 3rd annual meeting of the Global E-waste Management Network (GEM3). San Francisco, USA. 15th- 19th, 2013
M. O. Aremu, G. N. Ozonyia and P. P. Ikokoh, Electronic journal of Environmental Agricultural and Food Chemistry. Vol. 10, No. 6, 2011, pp. 2296-2304.
A. I. Rasheed and A. K Amuda. Impacts of Artisanal Mining on Some Heavy Metals Concentration in Surface Water in Kutcheri, Zamfara State North-Western Nigeria. Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies. Vol. 3, No. 7, 2014, pp. 74-82.
I. N. Aigbedion. Environmental Pollution in the Niger-Delta, Nigeria. Inter-Discplinary J. Vol 3, No. 4, 2005, pp. 205–210.
P. Agamuthu. Solid Waste: Principles and Management. 2001. Institute of Biological Sciences, University of Malaya.
D. A. Rosas and G. P. Constantino. Study of generation of household hazardous waste in a residential area. 1998. National Autonomous University of Mexico School of Engineering. Estudio degeneraciónde residuos peligrosos domésticos en una zona habitacional. 1998. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México Facultad de Ingeniería.
A. Y. Sangodoyin and S. F. Ipadeola. Hazardous Wastes: Assessing the Efficacy of Structures and Approaches to Management in Nigeria. Environmental Management and Health. Vol. 11, No. 1, 2000, pp. 39- 46.
O. Awodele, A. A. Adewoye and A. C. Oparah. Assessment of Medical Waste Management in Seven Hospitals in Lagos, Nigeria. BMC Public Health. Vol. 16, 2016, pp. 269.
B. E. Bassey, M. O. Benka-Coker and H. S. Aluyi. A Characterization and management of solid medical wastes in the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja Nigeria. African Health Sciences. Vol. 6, No. 1, 2006, pp. 58-63.
Federal Ministry of Environment (FMEnv.) A Review of the National Policy On the Environment, 1999. In http://environment.gov.ng/index.php/downloads/ Retrieved on September 2nd, 2016
Basel Convention Country Fact Sheet, Nigeria. In www.basel.int Retrieved on September 2nd, 2016.
G. A. Wokocha. Impacts of industrial wastes disposal strategies on oil producing communities in Rivers State, Nigeria. Journal of Natural Sciences Research. Vol. 4, No. 22, 2014, 159-163.
National Council On Environment (NEC). Transforming the Nigerian Environment. 8th National Council On Environment Report. 26th – 30th September, 2011. FMEnv.
National Council On Environment (NEC). Green Economy - A Panacea for Sustainable Development. 9th National Council On Environment Report. 5th – 10th May, 2013. FMEnv.
United Nation Environmental Programme. UNEP Welcomes Nigerian Government’s Green Light for Ogoniland Oil Clean-up. UNEP News Centre August 1st, 2012.
Vanguard Newspaper. Buhari Lunches Clean-Up of Ogoniland Today. June 2nd, 2016. In www.vanguardngr.com/2016/06/buhari-lunches-clean-ogoniland-today
BCRCCATTT. Report of Regional Workshop On Successful Case Studies of Recycling, Reuse and Resource Recovery Methods Towards the Environmentally Sound Management (ESM) Of Hazardous Wastes in Africa, Conference Centre, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. 9th –12th August 2004.
D. N. Ogbonna. A. Chindah and N. Ubani. Waste management options for health care wastes in Nigeria: a case study of Port Harcourt hospitals. Journal of Public Health and Epidemiology. Vol. 4, No. 6, 2012, pp. 156-169.
N. C. Ngwuluka, N. A. Ochekpe and P. O. Odumosu. An assessment of pharmaceutical waste management in some Nigerian pharmaceutical industries. African Journal of Biotechnology. Vol. 10, No. 54, 2011, pp. 11259-11264.
N. N. Ubachukwu, P. O. Phil-Eze and C. N. Emeribe. Analysis of Household Hazardous Wastes Awareness Level in Enugu Metropolis. Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, Vol. 3, No. 1, 2014, pp. 369-377.