Co-Infection Prevalence of Herpes Simplex Virus Types 1 and 2 with Human Papillomavirus and Associated Risk Factors among Asymptomatic Women in Ghana
International Journal of Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Volume 3, Issue 3, September 2018, Pages: 45-51
Received: Aug. 30, 2018;
Accepted: Sep. 21, 2018;
Published: Oct. 23, 2018
Views 450 Downloads 46
Agyemang-Yeboah Francis, Department of Molecular Medicine, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana
Debrah Oksana, Department of Molecular Medicine, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana; Clinical Laboratory Unit, Institutional Care Division, Ghana Health Service, Accra, Ghana
Donkoh Emmanuel Timmy, Department of Molecular Medicine, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana; University of Energy and Natural Resources, Sunyani, Ghana
Asmah Harry Richard, College of Health Sciences, University of Ghana, Legon, Accra, Ghana
Seini Mustapha Mohammed, Department of Molecular Medicine, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana; Laboratory Department, Greater Accra Regional Hospital, Accra, Ghana
Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2) are among the most common human viral infections worldwide and associated with increased risk for other sexually transmitted infections, such as HPV. Unfortunately, there is a dearth of population data on the joint epidemiology of HPV-HSV infections in Ghana. In order to determine the prevalence of HSV-1 and HSV-2 co-infection with HPV and associated risk factors, 317 asymptomatic women attending the Cervicare Centers in Ghana were invited to participate in cross-sectional study. Serum HSV-1 and HSV-2 IgG were determined by ELISA method. Genomic DNA from cervical swabs was extracted using QIAamp Mini kit. HPV-DNA detection was carried out by nested multiplex PCR as was described by Sotlar et al., (2004). The mean age of study participants was 40.7 years (SD ± 11.2). Our result showed the prevalence of HSV-1 and HSV-2 infection among HPV positive women as 98.6% and 80.4% respectively. Among unscreened women participating in the study the co-infection of HSV-1/HPV and HSV-2/HPV was 42.9% and 35.0%, respectively. Age of coitache was associated with sero-prevalence of HSV-1 (p=0.010), HPV infection (p=0.016), and with co-infection HPV and HSV-1 (p=0.025), HPV and HSV-2 (p=0.011) and weakly with single HSV-2 infection (p=0.054). In conclusion, the high prevalence of co-infection was due to the endemicity and inadequate intervention in the study population. A woman’s age of sexual debut was a strong risk factor for co-infection of HPV and HSV-1 or HSV-2. The outcome of this novel observation stresses the urgent need to develop appropriate interventional strategies to manage and cancel patients presenting with asymptomatic genital herpes.
Donkoh Emmanuel Timmy,
Asmah Harry Richard,
Seini Mustapha Mohammed,
Co-Infection Prevalence of Herpes Simplex Virus Types 1 and 2 with Human Papillomavirus and Associated Risk Factors among Asymptomatic Women in Ghana, International Journal of Infectious Diseases and Therapy.
Vol. 3, No. 3,
2018, pp. 45-51.
Looker K. J., Magaret A. S., May M. T., Turner K. M. E., Vickerman P., Gottlied S. L., Newman L. M.. (2015). Global and regional estimates of prevalent and incident herpes simplex virus type 1 infection on 2012. PLoS One, 10:e0140765.
Looker K. J., Magaret A. S., Turner K. M., Vickerman P., Gottlieb S. L., Newman L. M. (2015). Global estimates of prevalent and incident herpes simplex virus type 2 infections in 2012. PLoS One, 10:e114989.
Debrah O., Agyemang-Yeboah F., Asmah R. H., Timmy-Donkoh, E. Seini M. M., Fondjo L. A., Sight N., Owusu-Dabo E. (2018). Sero-prevalence of herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 among women attending routine Cervicare clinics in Ghana. BMC Infect Dis, 18:378. doi:10.1186/s12879-018-3288-1.
Lowhagen G. B., Tunback P., Bergstrom T. (2002). Proportion of herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 and type 2 among genital and extragenital HSV isolates. Anta Derm Venereol, 82:118-120.
Garceau R., Leblanc D., Thibault L., Girouard G., Mallet M. (2012). Herpes simplex virus type 1 is the leading cause of genital herpes in New Brunswick. Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol, 23: 15-18.
Gupta R., Warren T. and Wald A. (2007). Genital Herpes. Lancet, 370: 2127-2137.
Anzivino E., Fioriti D., Mischitelli M., Bellizzi A., Barucca V., Chiarini F., Pietropaolo V. (2009). Herpes simplex virus infection in pregnancy and in neonate: status of art of epidemiology, diagnosis, therapy and prevention. Virol J, 6:40. Doi: 10.1186/1743-422X-6-40.
Ohana B., Lipson M., Vered N., Srugo I., Ahdut M., Morag A. (2000). Novel approach for specific detection of herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 antibodies and immunoglobulin G and M antibodies. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol, 7:904-908.
del Mar Pujades Rodriguez M., Obasi A., Mosha F., Todd J., Brown D., Changalucha J., Mabey D., Ross D., Grosskurth H., Hayes R. (2002). Herpes simplex virus type 2 infection increases HIV incidence: a prospective study in rural Tanzania. AIDS, 16(3):451-62.
Wald A. andLink K. (2002). Risk of human immunodeficiency virus infection in herpes simplex virus type 2-seropositive persons: a meta-analysis. J Infect Dis, 185(1):45-52.
Cowan F. M., Humphrey J. H., Ntozini R., Mutasa K., Morrow R., Iliff P. (2008). Maternal herpes simplex virus type 2 infection, syphilis and risk of intra-partum transmission of HIV-1: results of a case-control study. AIDS, 22:193-201.
Singh A. E., Romanowski B., Gourishankar S., Myziuk L., Fenton J., Preiksaitis J. K. (2005). Herpes siplex virus seroprevalence and risk factors in 2 Canadian sexually transmitted disease clinics. Sex Transm Dis, 32:95-100.
Szostek S., Zawilinska B., Kopec J., Kosz-Vnenchak M. (2009). Herpesviruses as possible cofactors in HIV-16-related oncogenesis. Acta Biochim Pol, 56:337-342.
IARC (1995). Monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic riscks to humans. Human papillomaviruses. IARC Monographs 64.
Coutlee F., Gravitt P., Kornegay J., Hankins C., Richardson H., Lapointe N., Voyer H. and Franco E. (2002). Use of PGMY primers in L1 consensus PCR improves detection of human papillomavirus DNA in genital samples. J Clin Microbiol, 40: 902-907.
Gellin J., Brown S., Marshall Graves J. A., Rothschild M., Schook L., Womack J., and Yerle M. (2002). Comparative gene mapping workshop: progress in agriculturally important animals. Mamm Genome, 11:140-144.
WHO/ICO. (2010). Human Papillomavirus and related cancers in the world. In WHO informational Center on HPV and Cervical Cancer (HPV Informational Centre). WHO/ICO.
Schelhass M., Shah M., Holzer M., Blattmann P., Kuhling L., Day P. M, Schiller J. T., Helenius A. (2012). Entry of human papillomavirus type 16 by actin-dependent, clathrin- and lipid raft-independent endocytosis. PLos Pathogenesis, 8:e1002657.
Hara Y., Kimoto T., Okuno Y., and Minekawa Y. (1997). Effect of herpes simplex virus on the DNA of human papillomavirus 18. J Med Virol, 53: 4-12.
Kalu E. I., Ojide C. K., Fowotade A., Nwadike V. U. (2014). Sexual behavioral correlates with HSV-2 seroprevalence among pregnant women in Nigeria. J. Infect. Dev. Ctries, 8(8):1006-1012.
Smith J. S., Herrero R., Bosetti C., Munoz N., Bosch F. X., Eluf-Neto J., Castellsague X., Meijer C. J., Van den Brule A. J., Franceschi S., Ashley R. (2002). Herpes simplex virus-2 as a human papillomavirus cofactor in the etiology of invasive cervical cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst, 94: 1604-1613.
Brady R. C. and Bernstein D. I. (2004). Treatment of herpes simplex virus infections. Antiviral Res, 61:73-81.
York I. A., Roop C., Andrews D. W., Riddell S. R., Graham F. L., Johnson D. C. (1994). A cytosolic herpes simplex virus protein inhibits antigen presentation to CD8+ T lymphocytes. Cell, 77(4): 525-535.
Wiredu E. K. and Armah H. B. (2006). Cancer mortality patterns in Ghana: a ten year review of autopsies and hospital mortality. BMC Public Health, 6:156-159.
ICO/IARC. (2016). Human papillomavirus and related disease report. Ghana. In ICO/IARC Informational Center on HPV and Cancer. www.hpvcentre.net/statistics/reports/GHA.
Nyiro J. U., Snders E. J., Ngetsa C., Wale S., Awuondo K., Bukusi E., Price M. A., Amornkul P. N., James Nokes D. (2011). Seroprevalence, predictors and estimated incidence of maternal and neonatal Herpes simplex virus type 2 infection in semi-urban women in Kilifl, Kenya. BMC Infect Dis, 11:155.
Santos F. C., de Oliveira S. A., Setubal S., Camacho L. A. B., Faillace T., Leite J. P. G. Velarde L. G. (2006). Seroepidemiological study of herpes simplex virus type 2 in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in the city of Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz, 101(3):315-319.
Agboeze J., Umeora O., Ozumba B., Onoh R., Ezeonu P., Edegbe F. (2005). Prevalence and pattern of abnormal cervical smear among women infected with HIV in Abakaliki, Nigeria. African Journal of Med and Health Scxiences, 1492):92-95.
Coker A. L., Richter D. L., Valois R. F., McKeown R. E., Garrison C., Vincent M. L. (1994). Correlates and consequences of early initiation of sexual intercourse. J. Sch. Health, 64:372–377.
Andersson-Ellstrom A., Forssman L., Milsom, I. (1996). Age of sexual debut related to life-style and reproductive health factors in a group of Swedish teenage girls. Acta Obstet. Gynecol. Scand, 75:484–489.