Co-Infection Prevalence of Herpes Simplex Virus Types 1 and 2 with Human Papillomavirus and Associated Risk Factors among Asymptomatic Women in Ghana
International Journal of Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Volume 3, Issue 3, September 2018, Pages: 45-51
Received: Aug. 30, 2018;
Accepted: Sep. 21, 2018;
Published: Oct. 23, 2018
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Agyemang-Yeboah Francis, Department of Molecular Medicine, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana
Debrah Oksana, Department of Molecular Medicine, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana; Clinical Laboratory Unit, Institutional Care Division, Ghana Health Service, Accra, Ghana
Donkoh Emmanuel Timmy, Department of Molecular Medicine, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana; University of Energy and Natural Resources, Sunyani, Ghana
Asmah Harry Richard, College of Health Sciences, University of Ghana, Legon, Accra, Ghana
Seini Mustapha Mohammed, Department of Molecular Medicine, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana; Laboratory Department, Greater Accra Regional Hospital, Accra, Ghana
Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2) are among the most common human viral infections worldwide and associated with increased risk for other sexually transmitted infections, such as HPV. Unfortunately, there is a dearth of population data on the joint epidemiology of HPV-HSV infections in Ghana. In order to determine the prevalence of HSV-1 and HSV-2 co-infection with HPV and associated risk factors, 317 asymptomatic women attending the Cervicare Centers in Ghana were invited to participate in cross-sectional study. Serum HSV-1 and HSV-2 IgG were determined by ELISA method. Genomic DNA from cervical swabs was extracted using QIAamp Mini kit. HPV-DNA detection was carried out by nested multiplex PCR as was described by Sotlar et al., (2004). The mean age of study participants was 40.7 years (SD ± 11.2). Our result showed the prevalence of HSV-1 and HSV-2 infection among HPV positive women as 98.6% and 80.4% respectively. Among unscreened women participating in the study the co-infection of HSV-1/HPV and HSV-2/HPV was 42.9% and 35.0%, respectively. Age of coitache was associated with sero-prevalence of HSV-1 (p=0.010), HPV infection (p=0.016), and with co-infection HPV and HSV-1 (p=0.025), HPV and HSV-2 (p=0.011) and weakly with single HSV-2 infection (p=0.054). In conclusion, the high prevalence of co-infection was due to the endemicity and inadequate intervention in the study population. A woman’s age of sexual debut was a strong risk factor for co-infection of HPV and HSV-1 or HSV-2. The outcome of this novel observation stresses the urgent need to develop appropriate interventional strategies to manage and cancel patients presenting with asymptomatic genital herpes.
Donkoh Emmanuel Timmy,
Asmah Harry Richard,
Seini Mustapha Mohammed,
Co-Infection Prevalence of Herpes Simplex Virus Types 1 and 2 with Human Papillomavirus and Associated Risk Factors among Asymptomatic Women in Ghana, International Journal of Infectious Diseases and Therapy.
Vol. 3, No. 3,
2018, pp. 45-51.
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