Intestinal Parasitic Infections at Tikur Anbessa University Hospital, Ethiopia: A 5-Year Retrospective Study
International Journal of Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Volume 1, Issue 1, December 2016, Pages: 22-26
Received: Sep. 7, 2016;
Accepted: Sep. 22, 2016;
Published: Jan. 7, 2017
Views 2361 Downloads 71
Alemnesh Tssema, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, School of Medicine, Debre Berhan University, Debereberhan, Ethiopia
Berhanu Yitayew, Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Parasitology, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Taddese Kebede, Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Parasitology, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Background: Intestinal parasitic infections cause serious public health problems in Ethiopia. They are prevalent in populations with low socio-economic status, overcrowding and poor hygiene. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among patients who had attended Tikur Anbessa University Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods: This retrospective study was conducted using hospital data obtained from the Medical Parasitology unit in Tikur Anbessa University Hospital from April to June 2012. Data was entered, cleaned and analysed using the SPSS, version 16.0. Chi-square test (χ2) was used to identify associations between the variables using p<0.05 as thelevel of significance. Results: Over the five years study period, a total of 4977 patients visiting Tikur Anbessa Hospital were included in the study. The patients mean age was 31.86 (± 14.79) with female to male ratio being 1.2:1. A total of 1718 (34.5%) were positive for at least one intestinal parasite. Mixed infections were found in 123 (2.5%) of the total patients included in this study. Up to 3 parasites were detected in 8 (0.2%) of the patients. E. histolytica trophozoite was the most commonly reported parasite, which was seen in 13.6% of the patients. Isospora belli was the least commonly reported protozoan parasite (0.1%). Among helminths, Ascarislumbricoides was the most prevalent etiology of parasitic infections as reported in 4.4% of the patients. Enterobiusvermicularis was identified only in 0.1%, thus the least common cause of helminths infections. In this study, the intestinal parasitic infections were most prevalent (43%) in patients between 5-14 years of age group. Conclusions and Recommendation: A notable finding from this study is the high prevalence of parasitic infections, with E. histolytica trophozoite as the most commonly reported one, among patients visiting Tikur Anbessa Hospital from 2006 to 2010. Overall, intestinal parasitic infections were more prevalent in patients among 5-14 years of age (43%).
Intestinal Parasitic Infections at Tikur Anbessa University Hospital, Ethiopia: A 5-Year Retrospective Study, International Journal of Infectious Diseases and Therapy.
Vol. 1, No. 1,
2016, pp. 22-26.
Malenganisho M, Magnussen P, Friis H, Siza J, Kaatano G, Temu M and Vennervald J. (2008) Schistosomamansoni morbidity among adults in two villages along Lake Victoria shores in Mwanza District, Tanzania. Tran Tropl Med Hygiene, 102:532-541.
Bdri S and Adwen G. (2010) Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in Jenin Governorate, Palestine: a 10- year retrospective study. Asian Pacific J Trop Medicine, 3(9)745-747.
WHO. (1998) Control of tropical diseases. WHO, Geneva.
Mbuh V, Ntonifor N and Ojong T. (2010) the incidence, intensity and host morbidity of human parasitic protozoan infections in gastrointestinal disorder outpatients in Buea Sub Division, Cameroon. J Infec Developing Countries, 4: 38-43.
Sayyari A, Imanzadeh F, Bagheri A, Karami H and Yaghoobi M(2005) Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in the Islamic Republic of Iran. East Mediterr Health J, 11:377-383.
Chen Y, Zhang Y, Yang B, Qi T and Lu H (2007) Short report: Seroprevalence of Entamoebahistolytica infection in HIV-infected patients in China. Am J Trop Med Hyg, 77(5): 825-828.
Al-Shammari S, Khoja T, El-Khwasky F, and Gad A (2001) Intestinal parasitic diseases in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; Prevalence, Socio-demographic and environmental associates. TropMed Int health, 6:184-189.
WHO. (1996)Report on the WHO informal consultation on the use of chemotherapy for the control of morbidity due to soil-transmitted nematodes in humans. Division of the control of tropical diseases, WHO, Geneva.
Hotez P, Brooker S, Bethony J, Bottazzi M, Loukas A and Xiao S (2004) Hookworm Infection. N Engl J Med, 351:799-807.
Tadesse G. (2005) the prevalence of intestinal helminthic infections and associated risk factors among school children in Babile town, eastern Ethiopia. Ethiop.J.Health Dev, 19(2):140-147.
Damen G, Luka J, Biwan I and Lugos M. (2011) Prevalence of intestinal parasites among Pupils in Rural North Eastern, Nigeria. Nigeri Med J, 52 (1):4-6.
Obeng S, Kwakye-Nuako G, Asmah H,Ayeh-Kumi F (2007) parasitic pathogen microbes associated with fresh vegetable consumed in Accra. Ghana. J Allied Health Sci, 2:11-5
Fadel A. (2002) Prevalence and Seasonal Fluctuations of Common Intestinal Parasites in Khan Younes from 1996-2000. J Islamic University Gaza, 10(2): 1-11.
Ibrahim A (2006) Retrospective analysis of intestinal parasitic infections diagnosed at a university hospital in central, Saudi Arabia. Saudi Med J, 27 (11):1714-1718.
Mazigo D, Ambrose E, Zinga M, Bahemana E, Mnyone L, Kweka J and Heukelbach J(2010) Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among patients attending Bugando Medical Centre in Mwanza, north-western Tanzania. Tanzan J Health Res, 12(3): 1-7.
Mengistu A, Gebre-Selassie S and Kassa T (2007) Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among urban dwellers in southwest Ethiopia. Ethiop J Health Dev, 21(1):12-17.
Legesse M and Erko B (2004) Prevalence of intestinal parasites among schoolchildren in a rural area close to the southeast of Lake Langano, Ethiopia. Ethiop.J.Health Dev, 18(2):116-120.
Hotez J, Bundy P, Beegle K, Brooker Set al (2006) Helminth infections. Soil-Transmitted Infections and Schistosomiasis. The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/ the World Bank. 467-482.
Belizario Y. (2001) Parasitologic assessment: A model for school based mass treatment for common intestinal helminth infections. Trans NatlAcad Science Technol.
Koroglu M, Yakupogullari Y and Turhan R (2007) A Retrospective analysis of the results of a Seven-Year Parasitological Examination of Stools from Malatya State Hospital, Turkiye. Turkiye Parazitol Derg, 31(3): 201-204.
Kurup R and Hunjan S (2010) Intestinal parasites in St Lucia: A retrospective, laboratory-based study. J Rural Trop Public Health, 9: 24-30.
Haile G, Jirra C and Mola T (1994) Intestinal parasitism among Jiren elementary and junior secondary school students, southwest Ethiopia. Ethiop J Health Dev, 8:37-41.
Tesfa-Yohannes M and Kloos H (1988) Intestinal parasitism. In: Zein A. Z and Helmut Kloos (Eds). The ecology of health and disease in Ethiopia, Ministry of Health, Addis Ababa, 214-230.
Sayasone S, Mak K, Vanmany M, Rasphone O, Vounatsou P, Utzinger J, Akkhavong K and Odermatt P (2011) Helminth and Intestinal Protozoa Infections, Multiparasitism and Risk Factors in Champasack Province, Lao People’s Democratic Republic. PLOS Negl Trop Dis, 5(4): 1037.