Association Between Nurses’ Years of Practice and Knowledge on Insulin Therapy at Edward Francis Small Teaching Hospital, the Gambia: A Cross-sectional Study
International Journal of Diabetes and Endocrinology
Volume 4, Issue 2, June 2019, Pages: 49-56
Received: Apr. 20, 2019;
Accepted: May 28, 2019;
Published: Jun. 11, 2019
Views 237 Downloads 23
Tobiloba Oyejide Alex Omotosho, Department of Nursing and Reproductive Health, University of the Gambia, Banjul, The Gambia
Haddy Tunkara-Bah, Department of Nursing and Reproductive Health, University of the Gambia, Banjul, The Gambia
Tomilayo Felicity Omotosho, Department of Nursing and Reproductive Health, University of the Gambia, Banjul, The Gambia
Pateh Saho, Department of Nursing, Edward Francis Small Teaching Hospital, Banjul, The Gambia
Follow on us
The purpose of this study was to measure the association between years of nursing practice and knowledge of insulin therapy among nurses in Edward Francis Small Teaching Hospital, The Gambia. A hospital-based descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 127 randomly selected trained nurses. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Data were analysed using IBM SPSS version 20. A total of 127 nurses participated in this study but 118 completely filled and returned the questionnaires making a total response rate of 93%. The mean years of experience of nurses was 3.86 ± 4.051 years with a minimum of 1 year (20.3%) and maximum of 23 years (0.8%). Most of the nurses were females (n = 66, 55.6%), had a diploma in nursing (n = 75, 63.6%) and working at the surgical department (n = 47, 39.8%) respectively. The majority (n = 93, 78.8%) of them had never attended an in-service training on management of diabetes. The majority of nurses rated their knowledge of diabetes as good (n = 72, 61%). Despite this self-rating, 114 (96.6%) of them would like to receive extra training on insulin therapy. Eighty-six percent (n = 102) of the nurses knew the normal range of fasting blood sugar level and 98.3% said that blood sugar level should be checked prior to administering insulin (n = 116). However, most of them did not know that a blood sugar level of less than 70 mg/dl in a diabetic patient is classified as hypoglycaemia (n = 77, 65.3%). There were significant mean differences of the nurses’ years of experience in relation to their willingness to attend an in-service training on DM management and knowledge of sign and symptoms of hypoglycaemia (p < 0.05). The majority (87.3%) and (91.5%) of the nurses practiced injection site cleaning and priming of the insulin syringe respectively. However, 33.1% (n = 39) of the nurses do not wash their hands and only 4.2% (n =5) of them reported checking for expiry date prior to giving insulin injection. In addition, 72.9% (n = 86) of the nurses reported administering insulin injection in the arm. The nurses with more than four years of practice were more knowledgeable on the requirements of effective insulin administration than those with two years or less practical experience. The findings of this study highlight the urgent need for an educational intervention on diabetes and insulin therapy for the nurses in EFSTH.
Nurses, Knowledge, Insulin, Therapy, Diabetes, EFSTH, The Gambia
To cite this article
Tobiloba Oyejide Alex Omotosho,
Tomilayo Felicity Omotosho,
Association Between Nurses’ Years of Practice and Knowledge on Insulin Therapy at Edward Francis Small Teaching Hospital, the Gambia: A Cross-sectional Study, International Journal of Diabetes and Endocrinology.
Vol. 4, No. 2,
2019, pp. 49-56.
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Alwan AH, Alhusuny A. Knowledge and practice about diabetes mellitus and insulin injection technique among nurses in general hospitals, Al-Hillah City. IOSR J Dental and Med Sci. 2014; 13 (9): 28-32.
World Health Organization (WHO): World Health Day Beat diabetes. http://www.who.int/diabetes/en/(2016). Accessed 20 October 2018.
International Diabetes Federation (IDF): http://www.diabetesatlas.org/ (2016). Accessed 22 October 2018.
Kirtland KA, Li YF, Geiss LS, Thompson TJ. State-specific incidence of diabetes among adults–participating states, 1995–1997 and 2005–2007. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2008; 57 (43): 1169–1173.
Saygılı U, Kılıç SP. Determination of knowledge levels of nurses on insulin applications. International Journal of Diabetes and Endocrinology. 2017; 2 (4): 50-54. doi: 10.11648/j.ijde.20170204.11.
International Diabetes Federation (IDF): Regional prevalence of diabetes. https://www.idf.org/our-network/regions-members/africa/welcome.html/ (2017). Accessed 22 October 2018.
Avdal E, Kızılcı S. Concept analysis of diabetes and lack of self-efficacy nursing theory. Dokuz Eylül University School of Nursing Electronic Journal. 2010; 3 (3): 164-168.
Shu AD, Myers MG, Shoelson SE. Pharmacology of endocrine pancreas. In: Golan DE, Tashjian Jr AH, Armstrong EJ, Armstrong AW. Editors. Principles of pharmacology the pathophysiologic basis of drug therapy. 2nd ed. New Delhi: Wolters Kluwer (India); 2008.
Chrysoula D, Victoria A, Anna P. Assessment of insulin treatment-related knowledge among nurses in pediatric hospitals. IOSR Journal of Pharmacy. 2016; 6 (4): 20-25.
Derr RL, Sivanandy MS, Bronich-Hall L, Rodriguez A. Insulin-related knowledge among health care professionals in internal medicine. Diabetes spectrum, Baltimore, United States of America. 2007; 20 (3): 177-185.
Down S, Kirkland F. Injection technique in insulin therapy. Nursing Times. 2012; 108 (10): 20-21.
Wakefield PL, Wilson MA. Enhancing nurses' knowledge regarding the complex care of hospitalized patients on insulin. Journal for Nurses in Professional Development. 2014; 30 (4): 174-180.
Özcan Ş. Current practices in insulin therapy: recommendations for reducing insulin delivery failures. Journal of Education and Research in Nursing. 2007; 4 (2): 22-28.
Edward Francis Small Teaching Hospital (EFSTH): Staff Record (Unpublished data). Banjul, The Gambia. 2018.
Adhikari S, Poudel RS, Rajbanshi L, Shrestha S. Assessment of insulin injection practice of nurses working in a tertiary healthcare center of Nepal”. Hindawi: Nursing Research and Practice. 2018; Article ID 9375067.
Saho P. Factors Influencing the High Attrition of Nurses at Edward Francis Small Teaching Hospital” (Unpublished Masters Thesis). Presented in Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Award of the Master of Science Degree in Nursing. University of the Gambia, Banjul, The Gambia. 2011.
Mohammed MA, Hafez MZ. Nurses’ knowledge, skill and attitudes toward insulin errors for diabetic critically ill patients. AAMJ. 2013; 11: 4.
Findlow ML, McDowell RS. Determining registered nurses knowledge of diabetes mellitus- nurses knowledge. Journal of Diabetes Nursing. 2002; 6 (6): 170-175.
American Diabetes Association (ADA): National standards for diabetes self-management education. Diabetes Care. 2009; 32: 13–61.
Frid AH, Kreugel G, Grassi G. New Insulin Delivery Recommendations. Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 2016; 91 (9): 1231–1255.
InDependent Diabetes Trust (IDDT): Storing insulin: looking after your insulin and injecting devices. Northampton, NN1 4XS, United Kingdom. 2018.
Vimalavathini R, Gitanjali B. Effect of temperature on the potency & pharmacological action of insulin. Indian Journal of Medical Research. 2009; 130 (2): 166–169.
Kedogo EK. Impact of insulin storage and administration technique on glycated heamoglobin among adult diabetic patients in kenyatta national hospital. A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment for the requirements of the degree of master of pharmacy in clinical pharmacy of University of Nairobi. November 2015.
Razzaq-Sheikh J. Policy for the safe administration of insulin. East Chesire NHS Trust. 2016. http://www.eastcheshire.nhs.uk/About-The-Trust/policies/I/Insulin%20%20Safe%20administration%20of%20-%20ECT2544.pdf. Accessed on December 31, 2018.
Mushtaq MA. Study of insulin injection technique amongst the nursing staff”. Pak J Med Sci. 2006; 22 (3): 310.