Role of Supplementations of Combined Vitamins with Minerals on Iodine Status in Pregnant Women in Bulgaria
International Journal of Diabetes and Endocrinology
Volume 5, Issue 3, September 2020, Pages: 47-53
Received: Sep. 10, 2020;
Accepted: Oct. 6, 2020;
Published: Oct. 13, 2020
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Anna-Maria Borissovа, Clinic of Endocrinology, University Hospital Sofiamed, Sofia, Bulgaria; Faculty of Medicine, Sofia University Saint. Kliment Ohridski, Sofia, Bulgaria
Ludmila Ivanova, Faculty of Medicine, Sofia University Saint. Kliment Ohridski, Sofia, Bulgaria
Boyana Trifonova, Clinic of Endocrinology, University Hospital Sofiamed, Sofia, Bulgaria; Faculty of Medicine, Sofia University Saint. Kliment Ohridski, Sofia, Bulgaria
Lilia Dakovska, Clinic of Endocrinology, University Hospital Sofiamed, Sofia, Bulgaria
Eugenia Mihailova, Clinic of Endocrinology, University Hospital Sofiamed, Sofia, Bulgaria
Mircho Vukov, Clinic of Endocrinology, University Hospital Sofiamed, Sofia, Bulgaria
Underestimating the risk of iodine deficiency among the population and its impact on high risk groups such as pregnant women and children creates a serious problem for the health care system. The aim of the present study is to establish the current iodine status in pregnant women in Bulgaria and to clarify the importance of additional supplementation with combined vitamins and minerals (including iodine). Material: We included 537 non selected in advance pregnant women, avarage age 30.49±5 years (95% CI: 30.06 - 30.91), median – 30 (18-47) (95% CI: 30 - 31). More than 50% (271/537) of pregnant women took only vitamins with minerals or combined with other medications. Methods: After completing a personal Questionnaire, each pregnant woman followed the study protocol: sample for TSH and TPOAb (ECLIA method) morning urine to determine the iodine concentration by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS); ultrasound examination to determine the volume of the thyroid gland. Results: The mean concentration of iodine in urine for the whole group of pregnant women (n-537) was 181.60±93.97 µg / L, median 170 µg / L (20th percentile – 102 µg / L, 80th percentile – 248 µg / L). According to the criterion “additional supplementation” three groups of pregnant women were formed – A (79, 14.71%) – not taking anything, B (271, 50.47%) – taking combined vitamins with minerals (including iodine), C (187, 34.82%) – taking medicines other than vitamins. The highest is the average level of iodine in urine in Group B – 191.08±95.42 µg / L and the lowest in Group A – 162.91±93.23 µg / L, P < 0.01. If combined vitamins with minerals (including iodine) are taken, it will be significantly less common to have low iodine in urine – Group B – 31.1% against Group A – 53.2%, P < 0.033 i.e. there is a greater chance to normalize the level of iodine in the body. The supplementation with combined vitamins with minerals (including iodine) increased the percentage of pregnant women with over-optimal iodine in urine (> 250 µg / L) – 23.3% against 15.6% of these not taking combined vitamins with minerals (P < 0.04). No association was found between iodine in urine and thyroid volume, nor with abnormalities in TSH or TPOAb levels. Conclusion: The additional intake of combined vitamins with minerals (including iodine) contributes to the normal level of iodine in urine in pregnant Bulgarian women.
Role of Supplementations of Combined Vitamins with Minerals on Iodine Status in Pregnant Women in Bulgaria, International Journal of Diabetes and Endocrinology.
Vol. 5, No. 3,
2020, pp. 47-53.
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