Characteristics of Type 2 Diabetes Patients and Their Association with the Metabolic Syndrome and Cardiovascular Risk Factors at Thika Level Five Hospital in Kenya
International Journal of Diabetes and Endocrinology
Volume 4, Issue 2, June 2019, Pages: 35-48
Received: Jan. 25, 2019;
Accepted: Mar. 20, 2019;
Published: May 10, 2019
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Thuita Ann Watetu, Department of Human Nutrition Sciences, School of Food and Nutrition Sciences (SoFNuS), Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Nairobi, Kenya
Kiage Nyanchama Beatrice, Department of Human Nutrition Sciences, School of Food and Nutrition Sciences (SoFNuS), Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Nairobi, Kenya
Onyango Arnold N., Department of Human Nutrition Sciences, School of Food and Nutrition Sciences (SoFNuS), Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Nairobi, Kenya
Makokha Anselimo, Department of Human Nutrition Sciences, School of Food and Nutrition Sciences (SoFNuS), Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Nairobi, Kenya
Type 2 diabetes is a public health problem and one of the most common life threatening conditions globally, due to its related complications that are usually very costly to treat, with increasing number of people being diagnosed with this condition each year. Presence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and cardiovascular risks in Type 2 Diabetes patients increases the risk to complications. The objective of this study was to determine characteristics of type 2 diabetes patients and their association with MetS and associated cardiovascular risk. The study employed a cross section design method. Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes were recruited for the study from Thika Level Five Hospital in Kenya. Socio-demographic, clinical and lifestyle data were obtained using questionnaires. The nutrition status was determined by anthropometry. Other laboratory parameters that were determined included total cholesterol (TC), high density cholesterol (HDL-c) and low density cholesterol (LDL-c), triglyceride (TG), fasting blood glucose (FBG), glycated haemoglobin (HbA1C), and blood pressure (BP). Overall 153 (40.5% men and 59.5% women) Type 2 diabetic patients aged 20-79 years were included in the study. The overall mean age of patients was 56.07 years. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 86.3% as per WHO criteria. The MetS components were elevated waist circumference (WC, 90.8%), increased waist hip ratio (WHR, 86.9%), elevated blood pressure (65.7% & 72.5%) and elevated triglycerides (64.8%). The prevalence of occurrence of the components of the MetS was not significantly different among male and female patients except for WC, BMI and reduced serum HDL-C where women were at a significantly higher risk than men (P≤0.00.). The current study showed that income was associated with elevated diastolic blood pressure (BP), secondary education and years lived with diabetes were associated with elevated TG, while occupation showed some association with high WHR. Additionally Gender, marital status and type of residence were associated with elevated HDL while education, family history of diabetes and alcohol intake was associated with obesity. The prevalence of the MetS and associated cardiovascular risk among Type 2 Diabetes patients was high and similar among males and females. Enhanced surveillance on Mets and associated cardiovascular risk in Type 2 Diabetes in addition to application of preventive measures are critical in order to reduce the risk of macro vascular complications as well as increased cardiovascular risks in Type 2 Diabetes patients.
Thuita Ann Watetu,
Kiage Nyanchama Beatrice,
Onyango Arnold N.,
Characteristics of Type 2 Diabetes Patients and Their Association with the Metabolic Syndrome and Cardiovascular Risk Factors at Thika Level Five Hospital in Kenya, International Journal of Diabetes and Endocrinology.
Vol. 4, No. 2,
2019, pp. 35-48.
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