International Journal of Diabetes and Endocrinology
Volume 3, Issue 1, March 2018, Pages: 15-17
Received: Feb. 26, 2018;
Accepted: Mar. 16, 2018;
Published: May 4, 2018
Views 712 Downloads 55
Gulam Hassan, Department of Medicine, Government Medical College, Srinagar, India
Waseem Qureshi, Department of Chest Medicine /Registrar Academics, Government Medical College, Srinagar, India
It is clear that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and metabolism syndrome share a similar pathophysilogic milieu that would be expected to increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. In patients with established coronary artery disease, treatment of OSA may confer long term cardiovascular benefits. Prevention of nocturnal hypoxemia, sympathetic activation and pressor surges in addition to reduction of daytime sympathetic activity, blood pressure and insulin resistance by continuous positive airway pressure would improve cardiovascular outcomes in patients with metabolic syndrome.
Syndrome Z and Its Association with Obstructive Sleep Apnea, International Journal of Diabetes and Endocrinology.
Vol. 3, No. 1,
2018, pp. 15-17.
Eckel RH, Grundy SM, Zimmet PZ. The metabolic syndrome. Lancet 2005; 365: 1415-28.
Grundy SM, Brewer HB, Cleeman Ji, Smith SC, Lenfant C. Definition of metabolic syndrome: report of the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute / American Heart Association Conference on scientific issues related to definition. Circulation 2004; 109: 433-8.
Raven GM. Role of insulin resistance in human disease. Diabetes 1988; 37: 1595-1607.
Coweys S. Hardy W. The metabolic syndrome: a high risk state for cancer? Am J Pathol 2004; 109: 433-8.
Alberti KG, Zimmet PZ. Definition, diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus and its complications. Part 1: diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus provisional report of a WHO consultation. Diabet Med 1998; 15: 539-53.
Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III) final report. Circulation 2002; 106: 3143-421.
International Diabetes Federation. The IDF Consensus Worldwide. Definition of the metabolic syndrome. http://www.idf.org/ webdata/docs/IDF_Meta-def_final.pdf2006: 1-14.
Milani RV, Lavie CJ. Prevalence and profile of metabolic syndrome in patients following acute coronary events and effects of therapeutic life style change with cardiac rehabilitation. Am J Cardiol 2003; 92: 50-4.
Ford ES. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome defined by the International Diabetes Federation among adults in the U.S. Diabetes Care 2005; 28: 2745-9.
Coughlin SR, Mawdsley L, Mugarza JA, Calverley P, Wilding JP. Obstructive sleep apnea is independently associated with an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Eur Heart J 2004; 25: 735-41.
Vgontzas AN, Bixler EO, Chrousos GP. Sleep apnea is a manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. Sleep Med Rev 2005; 9: 211-24.
Ip MS, Lam B, Ng MM, Lam WK, Tsang KW, Lan KS. Obstructive sleep apnea is independently associated with insulin resistance. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2002; 165: 670-6.
Wilcox I, Mc Namara SG, Collins FL, Grunstein RR, Sullivan CE. “Syndrome Z”: the interaction of sleep apnoea, vascular risk factors and heart disease. Thorax 1998; 53 (Suppl. 3): S25-8.
Young T, Peppard PE, Gottlieb DJ. Epidemiology of obstructive sleep apnea: a population health perspective. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2002; 165: 1217-39.
Nock NL, Li Li, Larkin EK, Patel SR, Redline S. Empirical evidence for “Syndrome Z”: a hierarchial 5-factor model of the metabolic syndrome incorporating sleep disturbance measures. Sleep 2009; 32: 615-22.
Vgontzas AN, Bixler EO, Chrousos GP. Sleep apnea is a manifestation of metabolic syndrome. Sleep Med Rev 2005; 9: 211-24.
Tasali E, Ip MSM. Obstructive sleep apnea and metabolic syndrome: alterations in glucose metabolism and inflammation. Proc Am Thorac Soc 2008; 5: 207-17.
Sahar E, Whitney CN, Redline S et al. Sleep disordered breathing and cardiovascular disease: cross-sectional results of the Sleep Heart Health Study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2001; 163: 19-25.
Nagota T, Kuo L, Ren Y, Yoshida A, Hein TW. C-reactive protein inhibits endothelium-dependent nitric oxide-mediated dilation of retinal arterioles via enhanced superoxide production. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2008; 49: 2053-60.
Santhenam L, Chistianson DW, Nythan D, Berkowitz DE. Arginase and vascular aging. J Apple Physiol 2008; 105: 1632-42.
Barhato A, Cappuccio FP, Folkerd EJ et al. Metabolic syndrome and renal sodium handling in three ethnic groups living in England. Diabetologia 2004; 47: 40-46.
Pratt Ubunama MN, Nishizaka MK, Boedefeld RL et al. Plasma aldolesterone is related to severity of obstructive sleep apnea in subjects with resistant hypertensive. Chest 2007; 131: 453-59.
Lewis GF, Uffelman KD, Szeto LW, Weller B, Steiner G. Interaction between free fatty acids and insulin in the acute control of very low density lipoprotein production in humans. J Clin Invest 1995; 95: 158-66.
Murakami T, Michelgnoli S, Longhi R et al. Triglycerides are major determinants of cholesterol esterification/transfer and HDL remodeling in human plasma. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1995; 15: 1819-28.
Young T, Sahar E, Nieto FJ et al. Predictors of sleep-disordered breathing in community-dwelling adults: the Sleep Heart Health Study. Arch Intern Med 2002; 162: 893-900.
Tamura T, Sahar E, Nieto FJ et al. Relationship between the severity of obstructive sleep apnea and impaired glucose metabolism in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Respir Med 2008; 102: 1412-6.