Antidiabetic, Antisickling and Antibacterial Activities of Anacardium occidentale L. (Anacardiaceae) and Zanthoxylum rubescens Planch. Ex Hook (Rutaceae) from DRC
International Journal of Diabetes and Endocrinology
Volume 3, Issue 1, March 2018, Pages: 7-14
Received: Feb. 22, 2018; Accepted: Mar. 27, 2018; Published: May 4, 2018
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Authors
Gédéon Bongo, Department of Biology, University de Kinshasa, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo
Koto-te-Nyiwa Ngbolua, Department of Biology, University de Kinshasa, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo; Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Gbadolite, Nord Ubangi, Democratic Republic of the Congo; Higher Pedagogical Institute of Abumombazi, Nord Ubangi, Democratic Republic of the Congo
Colette Ashande, Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Gbadolite, Nord Ubangi, Democratic Republic of the Congo
Benjamin Gbolo, Department of Biology, University de Kinshasa, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo
Claudine Tshiama, Department of Teaching and Administration in Nursing Care, Higher Institute of Medical Techniques, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo
Dorothée Tshilanda, Department of Chemistry, University of Kinshasa, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo
Damien Tshibangu, Department of Chemistry, University of Kinshasa, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo
Nadège Ngombe, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Kinshasa, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo
Théophile Mbemba, Department of Biology, University de Kinshasa, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo
Pius Mpiana, Department of Chemistry, University of Kinshasa, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo
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Abstract
It was recently reported a rare association of two genetic diseases notably sickle cell anemia and diabetes in one patient in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Both diseases constitute a serious public health problem and have a common denominator that is to make patients susceptible to bacterial infections. Given the difficult and limited management of these diseases, the use of medicinal plants is considered as an effective alternative. Leaves of Anacardium occidentale and Zanthoxylum rubescens collected in the surroundings of University of Kinshasa and Gbadolite in Kinshasa and Nord Ubangi provinces respectively and these plants were selected through a chemo-taxonomic approach while a phytochemical screening was performed using a qualitative approach. Bacterial strains used to assess the antibacterial activity were Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and mice were used for the antidiabetic activity. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannins, anthocyanins, leucoanthocyanins, flavonoids, bound quinones as well saponins and alkaloids. The aqueous extracts of A. occidentale and Z. rubescens showed an antisickling activity. Only S. aureus was sensitive to A. occidentale where petroleum ether extract (MIC = 125 μg.mL-1) showed a good activity than other extracts and no activity was observed on E. coli. Meanwhile, Z. rubescens showed no antibacterial activity on both strains (MIC = > 500 μg.mL-1). The mean values of blood glucose after 120 minutes in untreated and treated mice were 99.5 ± 7.77mg.dL-1 (0.9% NaCl), 41.6 ± 10.07mg.dL-1 (Glibenclamide 10mg.Kg-1) and 64 ± 13.98mg.dL-1 (methanolic extract of A. occidentale 500mg.Kg-1). These findings show that A. occidentale plant possess an antihyperglycemic activity. To our knowledge, it is for the first time that the antisickling activity of A. occidentale and Z. rubescens is reported thus validating the chemotaxonomic approach used as a criterion of selection of these two plants. It is also for the first time that antidiabetic activity of A. occidentale is reported.
Keywords
Co-Morbidity, Sickle Cell Anemia, Diabetes, Chemo-Taxonomic Approach
To cite this article
Gédéon Bongo, Koto-te-Nyiwa Ngbolua, Colette Ashande, Benjamin Gbolo, Claudine Tshiama, Dorothée Tshilanda, Damien Tshibangu, Nadège Ngombe, Théophile Mbemba, Pius Mpiana, Antidiabetic, Antisickling and Antibacterial Activities of Anacardium occidentale L. (Anacardiaceae) and Zanthoxylum rubescens Planch. Ex Hook (Rutaceae) from DRC, International Journal of Diabetes and Endocrinology. Vol. 3, No. 1, 2018, pp. 7-14. doi: 10.11648/j.ijde.20180301.12
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Copyright © 2018 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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