Impact of Stress on Physiology of Endocrine System and on Immune System: A Review
Stress is a condition of the body which change the equilibrium between the body and its environment. Stress is either short term or long term. short term stress may lasts for few hours but long term lasts for few months. long term stress causes many health problems like respiratory infections, lack of sleep, poor diet etc. Many hormones involve in the stress response like cortisol, epinephrine, norepinephrine, gonadotropins. Immune system also affected with stress. Stress weakened the immune system. Stress causes an increase in the white blood cells (WBC) in the blood. This review discusses the effect of stress on hormones and on immune system. Chronic or long-term stress can suppress the pathological and protective immune responses While short-term stress can increase the expression of pathological and protective immune responses.
Impact of Stress on Physiology of Endocrine System and on Immune System: A Review, International Journal of Diabetes and Endocrinology.
Vol. 2, No. 3,
2017, pp. 40-42.
Ader R. (2007). Psychoneuroimmunology IV. San Diego: Academic Press.
Artemiadis AK, Anagnostouli MC, Alexopoulos EC (2011). Stress as a risk factor for multiple sclerosis onset or relapse: a systematic review. Neuroepidemiology. 36: 109-20.
Belgic KL, Landsbergis PA, Schnall PL, Baker D (2004). Is job strain a major source of cardiovascular disease risk? Scand J Work Environ Health. 30: 85-128.
Blalock JE., Harbour-McMenamin D., Smith EM (1985). Peptide hormones shared by the neuroendocrine and immunologic systems. J Immunol. 135: 858s-861s.
Cabot PJ, Carter L, Schafer M, Stein C (2001). Methionine-enkephalin and dynorphin A-release from immune cells and control of inflammatory pain. Pain 93: 207-212.
Cameron JL. (1997). Stress and behaviourally induced reproductive dysfunction in primates. Semin. Reprod Endocrinol., 15: 37-45.
Carlson SL, Fox S, Abell KM (1997). Catecholamines modulation of lymphocyte homing to lymphoid tissues. Brain Behav Immune. 11: 307-20.
Chida Y, Hamer M, Steptoe A (2008). A bidirectional relationship between psychological factors and atopic disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychosom Med. 70: 102-16.
Chorusos GP, Kino T (2007). Glucocorticoid action networks and complex psychiatric and somatic disorders. Stress. 10: 213-9.
Cohen S, Terrell DAJ, Smith AP (1991). Psychological stress and susceptibility to the common cold. N Engl J Med. 325: 606-12.
Del Rey A, Wolff C, Wildmann J, Randolf A, Straub RH, Besedovsky HO (2010). When immune-neuro-endocrine interactions are disrupted: experimentally induced arthritis as an example. Neuroimmunomodulation. 17: 165-8.
Dhabhar FS (2009). A hassle a day may keep the pathogens away: the fight-or-flight stress response and the augmentation of immune function. Integr Comp Biol. 49: 215-36.
Dhabhar FS, Malarkey WB, Neri E, McEwen BS (2012). Stress induced redistribution of immune cells- from barracks to boulevards to battlefields: a tale of three hormones. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 37: 1345-68.
Dhabhar FS, Saul AN, Holmes TH, Daugherty C, Neri E, Tillie JM, Kusewitt DF, Oberyszyn TM (2012). High anxiety is associated with higher chronic stress burden, lower protective immunity, and increased cancer progression. PLoS One. dos: 10.31371/journal.pone.0033069.
Dhabhar FS, McEwen BS (1996). Stress-Induced enhancement of antigen-specific cell-mediat ed immunity. J Immunol. 156: 2608-15.
Dhabhar FS, Satoskar AR, Bluethmann H, David JR, McEwen BS (2000). Stress-Induced enhancement of skin immune function: a role for IFNg. PNAS USA. 97: 2846-51.
Dhabhar FS and McEwen BS (1999). Enhancing versus suppressive effects of stress hormones in skin immune function. PNAS USA. 96: 1059-64.
Fasshauer M. and Bluter M (2015). Adipokines in health and disease. Tends Pharmacol Sci. July; 36(7): 461-70.
Fauci AS and Dale DC (1975). The effect of hydrocortisone on the kinetics of normal human lymphocytes. Blood. 46: 235-43.
Glaser R, Kiecolt-Glaser JK (2005). Stress-induced immune dysfunction: implications for health. Nat Rev Immunol. 5: 243-51.
Goldstein D. (1987). Stress-induced activation of the sympathetic nervous system. Balliere’s Clin Endocr Metlab. 1: 253-78.
Helmreich DL., Parfitt DB., Lu XY., Akil H., Watson SJ.(2005). Relation between the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis during repeated stress. Neuroendocrinology, 81: 183-92.
Irwin M, Patterson T, Smith TL, Caldwell C, Brown SA, Gillin CJ, Grant I (1990). Reduction of immune function in life stress and depression. Biol. Psychiatry. 27: 22-30.
McEwen BS (2002). The end of stress as we know it. Washington, DC: Dana Press.
Mills PJ, Ziegler MG, Rehman J, Maisel AS (1998). Catecholamines, catecholamine receptors, cell adhesion molecules, and acute stressor-related changes in cellular immunity. Adv Pharmacol. 42: 587-90.
Numan, M., Young, L. J. (2016). Neural mechanisms of mother-infant bonding and pair bonding: similarities, differences, and broader implications. Horm. Behav. 77, 98-112.
Padro CJ, Sanders VM (2014). Neuroendocrine regulation of inflammation. Semi n Immunol. doi: 10.1016/j.smim.2014.01.003.
Rilling, J. K, Young, L. J. (2014). the biology of mammalian parenting and its effect on offspring social development. Science 345, 771-776.
Saint-Mezard P, Chavagnac C, Bosset S, Ionescu M, Peyron E, Kaiserlian D, Nicolas JF, Berard F. (2003). Psychological stress exerts an adjuvant effect on skin dendritic cell functions in vivo. J Immunol. 171(8): 4073-80.
Sapolsky RM (2005). The influence of social hierarchy on primate health. Science, 308: 648-52.
Saul AN, Oberyszn TM, Daugherty C, Kusewitt D, Jones S, Jewell S, Malarkey WB, Lehman A, Lameshow S, Dhabhar FS (2005). Chronic stress and susceptibility to skin cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 97: 1760-7.
Smith EM (2003). Opioid peptides in immune cells. In: Immune Mechanisms of Pain and Analgesia, Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. Edited by Halina M, Christoph S, Kluwer Academic, Plenum Publishers, New York, 521: 51-68.
Segerstrom SC, Miller GE (2006). Psychological stress and human immune system: a meta-analytic study of 30 years of injury. Psychol Bull 130: 601-630.
Straub RH, Dhabhar FS, Bijlsma JW, Cutolo M (2005). How psychological stress via hormones and nerve fibers may exacerbate rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 52: 16-26.
Thaker PH, Han LY, Kamat AA, Arevalo JM, Takahashi R, Lu C, Jennings NB, Armiaz-Pena G, Bankson JA, Ravoori M, Merritt WM, Lin YG, Mangala LS, Kim TJ, Coleman RL, Landen CN, Li Y, Felix E, Sanguino AM, Newman RA, Lloyd M, Gershenson DM, Kundra V, Lopez-Berestein G, Lutgendorf SK, Cole SW, Sood AK (2006). Chronic stress promotes tumor growyh and angiogenesis in a mouse model of ovarian carcinoma. Nat Med. 12: 939-44.
Viswanathan K, Daugherty C, Dhabhar FS (2005). Stress as an endogenous adjuvant: augmentation of the immunization phase of cell-mediated immunity. Int. Immunol. 17: 1059-69.
Vitlic A, Lord JM, Phillips AC (2014). Stress, ageing and their influence on functional, cellular and molecular aspects of the immune system. Age (Dordr). doi: 10: 1007/s11357-014-9631-6.
Wright RJ, Rodriguez M, Cohen S (1998). Review of psychological stress and asthma: an integrated biopsychological approach. Thorax. 53: 1066-74.