Retrospective Analysis of Measles Surveillance Data - Amhara Region, North-Western Ethiopia, 2008-2010
Biomedical Statistics and Informatics
Volume 1, Issue 1, December 2016, Pages: 35-39
Received: Jul. 4, 2014; Accepted: Jul. 29, 2014; Published: Jan. 21, 2017
Views 2744      Downloads 82
Authors
Amelework Getinet Alene, Public Health Emergency Management, Amhara Regional Health Bureau, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia
Getinet Mitike Kassie, Public Health Emergency Management, Amhara Regional Health Bureau, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia; School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Amare Mengistu Mersha, Public Health Emergency Management, Amhara Regional Health Bureau, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia
Article Tools
Follow on us
Abstract
Introduction: Despite the availability of a safe and cost effective vaccine, measles remain one of the leading causes of death among young children. The majority (more than 95%) of measles deaths occur in low income countries like Ethiopia. Measles outbreaks are consistently reported from Amhara region of Ethiopia. Therefore analysis of surveillance data was performed to describe measles epidemiology within the region, to characterize the population affected and develop guidance to improve measles control activities. Methods: Measles surveillance data reported from Woreda to Amhara regional health bureau from 2008-2010 were obtained, reviewed and analyzed using Microsoft excel. The World Health Organization(WHO) clinical case definition for suspected measles case is a person with fever, and maculopapular rash (i.e. non vesicular) and cough, coryza or conjunctivitis. Result: A total of 2520 suspected cases of measles were reported to Amhara regional Public Health Emergency Management (PHEM). Out of this 353 (18%) were positive for IgM antibodies to measles , 1037 were epidemiologically linked and clinical cases. The median age of cases is 7 years with a range of two months to seventy nine years. Higher incidence was observed in children less than five years (12, 5.3 & 3.5/100,000 < five population) in the years 2010, 2009 & 2008 respectively. From the reported 1319 measles cases 1039 (78.7%) were unvaccinated. And out of the unvaccinated children less than five years were (%). Conclusion: Majority of cases are children less than five years of age. A large proportion of cases occur among unvaccinated individuals. Improving vaccination coverage, maintaining information on vaccination history and strengthening measles surveillance is mandatory. Effectiveness of cold chain needs further assessment if vaccine failure is a factor for measles outbreaks.
Keywords
Measles, Measles Surveillance, Amhara
To cite this article
Amelework Getinet Alene, Getinet Mitike Kassie, Amare Mengistu Mersha, Retrospective Analysis of Measles Surveillance Data - Amhara Region, North-Western Ethiopia, 2008-2010, Biomedical Statistics and Informatics. Vol. 1, No. 1, 2016, pp. 35-39. doi: 10.11648/j.bsi.20160101.15
References
[1]
World Health Organization Regional Office for Africa.Guidelines for Measles Surveillance Revised December 2004, pp- 3.
[2]
World Health Organization. Measles and Rubella Surveillance and Outbreak Investigation Guidelines World Health Organization Regional Office for South-East Asia. 2009. pp-19.
[3]
Cutts FT, Henao-Restrepo A, Olive JM: Measles elimination: progress and challenges. Vaccine 1999, 17(Suppl 3):S47-52. Japan Article
[4]
Centre for Disease Control and prevention. Global Measles control and regional elimination 1998-1999. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 1999; 48:1124-30.
[5]
Altintas DU, Evliyaoglu N, Lilinc B, Sen'an DI, Guneser S. The modification of measles vaccination age as a consequence of the earlier decline of transplacentally transferred antimeasles antibodies in Turkish infants. J Trop Pediatr 1996;41:115-7.
[6]
WHO. Global reductions in measles mortality 2000–2008 and the risk of measles resurgence. Weekly Epidemiol Rec 2009; 84: 509–16.
[7]
Federal Ministry of Health and WHO Ethiopia. National guideline for measles surveillance and outbreak investigation. Addis Ababa, April 2007, pp- 3, 22.
[8]
Cutts F, Nyandu B, Markowitz L, et al. Immunogenicity of high-titre AIK- C or Edmonston-Zagreb vaccines in 3.5-month-old infants, and of me- dium or high-titre Edmonston-Zagreb vaccine in 6-month-old infants, in Kinshasa, Zaire. Vaccine 1994; 12:1311-6.
[9]
Expanded Program on Immunization. Global Advisory Group. II. Measles. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 1993; 3:14.
[10]
De Quadros CA, Olive JM, Hersh BS, et al. Measles elimination in the Amer- icas: evolving strategies. JAMA 1996; 275:224-9.
[11]
Kiepiela P, Coovadia HM, Loening WE, Coward P, Abdool Karim SS. Loss of maternal measles antibody in black South African infants in the first year of life: implications for age of vaccination. S Afr Med J 1991; 79: 145-8.
[12]
Tades T, Ghlorghis B. Measles immunity in children before one year of age: a pilot study. Ethiop Med J 1985; 23:17-20.
[13]
FMOH. Accelerated Measles Control in Ethiopia: Integrated Measles SIAs Field Guide. Revised August 2010. Pp. 6.
[14]
Wondatir Nigatu, Dhan Samuel, Bernard Cohen, Phillippa Cumberland, Eshetu Lemma, DavidW.G. Brown, et al. Evaluation of a measles vaccine campaign in Ethiopia using oral-fluid antibody surveys, Vaccine 26 (2008) 4769–4774)
[15]
Federal Ministry of Health Ethiopia. Measles pre-elimination in Ethiopia integrated measles immunization activity: A Field Guide.Addis Ababa. 2010/2011.pp. 10-11.
[16]
WHO. Communicable disease control in emergencies; A field manual. Geneva; 2005, pp 162.
[17]
Amhara regional health bureau annual reports, Bahir Dar; 2004, 2008, 2009 and 2010.
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-983-5186