Experimental Study on Foamy Viscosity by Analysing CO2 Micro-Bubbles in Hexadecane
International Journal of Oil, Gas and Coal Engineering
Volume 2, Issue 2, March 2014, Pages: 11-18
Received: Feb. 9, 2014;
Published: Mar. 20, 2014
Views 3448 Downloads 241
Chanmoly Or, Department of Earth Resources Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan
Kyuro Sasaki Sasaki, Department of Earth Resources Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan
Yuichi Sugai, Department of Earth Resources Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan
Masanori Nakano, Research Center, Japanese Petroleum Exploration (JAPEX), Chiba, Japan
Motonao Imai, Research Center, Japanese Petroleum Exploration (JAPEX), Chiba, Japan
Continuous desorbing gas in the heavy oil generates lower viscosity with dispersing gas micro-bubbles. In this study, laboratory experiments were carried out to measure the viscosity of foamy hexadecane, typical component of heavy oil, and to investigate the CO2 gas micro-bubbles at ranged temperature of 20 – 50 °C and depressurization pressure of 1.0 – 6.0 MPa. Apparently, hexadecane mobility increases with increasing foam swelling. The viscosity ratio of foam vs. original hexadecane showed 0.90 – 0.70 with increasing foam swelling in the swelling range of 3.0 – 4.8%. The foam swelling is caused by dispersed gas micro-bubbles, and its viscosity was more reducible at either low temperature or high foam swelling based on present measurement results. The bubble distribution showed the large bubbles (approximately 50 µm in diameter) were coalesced but the micro-bubbles (approximately 5 µm in diameter) were stable under the shear of 1575 s-1, within 3 minutes of measuring. It shows that the micro-bubbles in smaller diameter have higher stability against the high shear rate. Therefore, generating foam by creating CO2 micro-bubbles is capable to make flow through the pore throats with viscosity reduction and improves oil recovery from non-mobile domain, such as aggregate and fine pores, by its swelling.
Kyuro Sasaki Sasaki,
Experimental Study on Foamy Viscosity by Analysing CO2 Micro-Bubbles in Hexadecane, International Journal of Oil, Gas and Coal Engineering.
Vol. 2, No. 2,
2014, pp. 11-18.
D. C. Bond and O. C. Holbrook, "Gas Drive Oil Recovery Process," 286650730-Dec-1958.
J. J. Sheng, R. E. Hayes, B. B. Maini, and W. S. Tortike, "Modelling Foamy Oil Flow in Porous Media," Transp. Porous Media, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 227–258, May 1999.
B. Maini, "Foamy-Oil Flow," J. Pet. Technol., vol. 53, no. 10, pp. 54–64, Oct. 2001.
B. Maini, "Foamy Oil Flow in Heavy Oil Production," J. Can. Pet. Technol., vol. 35, no. 6, pp. 21–24, Jun. 1996.
G. Bernard, L. W. Holm, and C. Harvey, "Use of Surfactant to Reduce CO2 Mobility in Oil Displacement," Soc. Pet. Eng. J., vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 281–292, Aug. 1980.
G. Yin, R. Grigg, and Y. Svec, "Oil Recovery and Surfactant Adsorption During CO2-Foam Flooding," presented at the Offshore Technology Conference, 4-7 May, Houston, Texas, 2009, pp. 1–14.
W. Yan, C. A. Miller, and G. J. Hirasaki, "Foam Sweep in Fractures for Enhanced Oil Recovery," Colloids Surf. Physicochem. Eng. Asp., vol. 282–283, pp. 348–359, Jul. 2006.
A. R. Kovscek, D. C. Tretheway, P. Persoff, and C. J. Radke, "Foam Flow Through a Transparent Rough-Walled Rock Fracture," J. Pet. Sci. Eng., vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 75–86, Jun. 1995.
T. Blaker, M. Aarra, S. Arne, R. Lars, H. Celius, H. Martinsen, and V. Frode, "Foam for Gas Mobility Control in the Snorre Field: The FAWAG Project," SPE Reserv. Eval. Eng., vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 317–323, Aug. 2002.
J. E. Stevens and F. D. Martin, "CO2 Foam Field Verification Pilot Test at EVGSAU: Phase IIIB--Project Operations and Performance Review," SPE Reserv. Eng., vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 266–272, Nov. 1995.
B. Maini, "Foamy Oil Flow in Primary Production of Heavy Oil under Solution Gas Drive," presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Houston, Texas, 1999, pp. 1–10.
B. Maini, H. Sarma, and A. George, "Significance of Foamy-Oil Behaviour in Primary Production of Heavy Oils," J. Can. Pet. Technol., vol. 32, no. 9, pp. 50–54, Sep. 1993.
P. M. Wilkinson, A. Van Schayk, J. P. M. Spronken, and L. . . Van Dierendonck, "The Influence of Gas Density and Liquid Properties on Bubble Breakup," Chem. Eng. Sci., vol. 48, no. 7, pp. 1213–1226, Apr. 1993.
D. Bennion, M. Mastmann, and M. Moustakis, "A Case Study of Foamy Oil Recovery in the Patos-Marinza Reservoir, Driza Sand, Albania," J. Can. Pet. Technol., vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 21–28, Mar. 2003.
J. Wang, Y. Yuan, L. Zhang, and R. Wang, "The Influence of Viscosity on Stability of Foamy Oil in the Process of Heavy Oil Solution Gas Drive," J. Pet. Sci. Eng., vol. 66, no. 1–2, pp. 69–74, May 2009.
N. S. Albartamani, S. M. Ali, and B. Lepski, "Investigation of Foamy Oil Phenomena in Heavy Oil Reservoirs," presented at the International Thermal Operations/Heavy Oil Symposium, Bakersfield, California, 1999.
P. Liu, Y. Wu, and X. Li, "Experimental Study on the Stability of the Foamy Oil in Developing Heavy Oil Reservoirs," Fuel, vol. 111, pp. 12–19, Sep. 2013.
P. Abivin, I. Henaut, J.-F. Argillier, and M. Moan, "Rheological Behavior of Foamy Oils," Energy Fuels, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 1316–1322, Mar. 2009.
C. E. P. S. Campos, H. G. D. A. Villardi, and A. M. Uller, "Solubility of Carbon Dioxide in Water and Hexadecane: Experimental Measurement and Thermodynamic Modeling," Journal of Chemical and Engineering Data, vol. 54, pp. 2881–2886, 2009.
H. Tanaka, Y. Yamaki, and M. Kato, "Solubility of Carbon Dioxide in Pentadecane, Hexadecane, and Pentadecane + Hexadecane," J. Chem. Eng. Data, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 386–388, Jul. 1993.
H. Kono, K. Sasaki, Y. Sugai, T. Takahashi, D. Ito, and T. Okabe, "Oil Drainage by CO2 Gas Diffusion, Dissolution and Foaming in Heavy Oil," presented at the World Heavy Oil Congress 2011, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, 2011.
R. B. Zhao, G. Q. Tang, and A. R. Kovscek, "Modification of Heavy-Oil Rheology Via Alkaline Solutions," J. Pet. Sci. Eng., vol. 103, pp. 41–50, Mar. 2013.
M. A. Cancela, E. Álvarez, and R. Maceiras, "Effects of Temperature and Concentration on Carboxymethylcellulose with Sucrose Rheology," J. Food Eng., vol. 71, no. 4, pp. 419–424, Dec. 2005.
J. J. Jasper, "The Surface Tension of Pure Liquid Compounds," J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 841–1010, Oct. 1972.
C. W. den Engelsen, J. C. Isarin, H. Gooijer, M. M. C. G. Warmoeskerken, and J. Groot Wassink, "Bubble Size Distribution of Foam," AUTEX Res. J., vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 14–27, Mar. 2002.
F. Javadpour and A. Jeje, "Micro-Model Experiments and Network Modelling of Bubble Growth in Foamy Oil Flow," presented at the Canadian International Petroleum Conference, Calgary, Alberta, 2003.