Design, Manufacturing and Test of a High-Precision MEMS Inclination Sensor for Navigation Systems in Robot-Assisted Surgery
International Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering
Volume 6, Issue 1, March 2018, Pages: 1-6
Received: Nov. 29, 2017;
Accepted: Jan. 15, 2018;
Published: Feb. 1, 2018
Views 2236 Downloads 113
Benjamin Arnold, Department of Microsystems and Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, University of Technology Chemnitz, Chemnitz, Germany
Daniel Wohlrab, Department of Microsystems and Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, University of Technology Chemnitz, Chemnitz, Germany
Christoph Meinecke, Center for Microtechnologies, University of Technology Chemnitz, Chemnitz, Germany
Danny Reuter, Center for Microtechnologies, University of Technology Chemnitz, Chemnitz, Germany
Jan Mehner, Department of Microsystems and Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, University of Technology Chemnitz, Chemnitz, Germany
Robot supported minimally invasive interventions are state of the art in operating theatres. To increase the accuracy of surgical instrument positioning, high-precision motion tracking systems are required. The miniaturization of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) facilitates the placing of orientation detection sensors close to the mounting of the surgical instrument to enhance positioning accuracy. A high resolution inclination sensor was developed using the innovative approach of laser-micro-welding. Trench sizes down to 800 nm are fabricated with more than 6-fold increase in aspect ratios (structure depth to electrode gap) compared to sensors without gap reduction. Electrical and physical tests as well as finite-element-simulations were performed. An increased sensitivity from 7.2 fF/° up to 60 fF/° was verified for the sensor with reduced electrode gap and a customized ASIC.
Design, Manufacturing and Test of a High-Precision MEMS Inclination Sensor for Navigation Systems in Robot-Assisted Surgery, International Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering.
Vol. 6, No. 1,
2018, pp. 1-6.
J. Marescaux, J. Leroy, F. Rubino et al. Transcontinental Robot-Assisted Remote Telesurgery: Feasibility and Potential Applications. Annals of Surgery. Vol. 235, No. 4, 2002, pp. 487-492.
The Lancet. Robotic surgery evaluation: 10 years too late. The Lancet. Vol. 388, Iss. 10049, 2016, p. 1026, DOI 10.1016/S0140-6736 (16) 31586-0.
K. J. Rebello. Applications of MEMS in surgery. Proceedings of the IEEE. Vol. 92, Iss. 1, 2004, pp. 43-55, DOI 10.1109/JPROC.2003.820536.
A. Bertz, M. Küchler, R. Knöfler, T. Gessner. A novel high aspect ratio technology for MEMS fabrication using standard silicon wafers. Sensors and Actuators A: Physical. Vol. 97-98, 2002, pp. 691-701, DOI 10.1016/S0924-4247 (02) 00006-7.
R. Abdolvand, F. Ayazi. An advanced reactive ion etching process for very high aspect-ratio sub-micron wide trenches in silicon. Sensors and Actuators A: Physical. Vol. 144, Iss. 1, 2008, pp. 109-116, DOI 10.1016/j.sna.2007.12.026.
F. Marty, L. Rousseau, B. Saadany et al. Advanced etching of silicon based on deep reactive ion etching for silicon high aspect ratio microstructures and three-dimensional micro- and nanostructures. Microelectronics Journal. Vol. 36, Iss. 7, 2005, pp. 673-677, DOI 10.1016/j.mejo.2005.04.039.
S. Tachi, K. Tsujimoto, S. Okudaira. Low-temperature reactive ion etching and microwave plasma etching of silicon. Applied Physics Letters. Vol. 52, Iss. 8, p. 616, DOI 10.1063/1.99382.
F. Lärmer, A. Schilp. Method of anisotropically etching silicon. Patent US 5501893, 1996.
B. Wu, A. Kumar, S. Parmarthy. High aspect ratio silicon etch: A review. Journal of Applied Physics. Vol. 108, Iss. 5, 051101, 2010, DOI 10.1063/1.3474652.
S. D. Senturia. CAD challenges for microsensors, mi-croactuators, and microsystems. Proceedings of the IEEE. Vol. 86, Iss. 8, 1998, pp. 1611-1626, DOI 10.1109/5.704266.
D. Galayko et al. Design, realization and testing of micro-mechanical resonators in thick-film silicon technology with postprocess electrode-to-resonator gap reduction. Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering. Vol. 13, 2004, pp. 134-140.
C. Acar et al. Post-Release Capacitance Enhancement in Micromachined Devices. IEEE Sensors, Vienna, Austria, Oct. 24-27, 2004, pp. 268-271, DOI 10.1109/ICSENS.2004.1426153.
W.-C. Chen et al. Realizing deep-submicron gap spacing for CMOS MEMS resonators with frequency tuning capability via modulated boundary conditions. IEEE International Conference on MEMS, Hong Kong, China, Jan. 24-28, 2010, pp. 735-738, DOI 10.1109/MEMSYS.2010.5442301.
D. Reuter et al. In-Process Gap Reduction of Capacitive Transducers. Sensors and Actuators A: Physical. Vol. 126, Iss. 1, 2006, pp. 211-217, DOI 10.1016/j.sna.2005.09.033.
M. Nowack et al. Novel Post-Process Gap Reduction Technology of High Aspect Ratio Microstructures Utilizing Micro Welding. Transducers Conference, Beijing, China, Jun. 5-9, 2011, pp. 1352-1355, DOI 10.1109/TRANSDUCERS.2011.5969505.
Meinecke C et al. Micro welding of aluminum for post process electrode gap reduction using femtosecond laser. Transducers Conference, Anchorage, Alaska, USA, Jun. 21-25, 2015, pp. 1354-1357, DOI 10.1109/TRANSDUCERS.2015.7181183.
J. Schille et al. Highspeed Laser Micro Processing using Ultrashort Laser Pulses. Journal of Laser Micro / Nanoengineering. Vol. 9, No. 2, 2014, pp. 161-168, DOI 10.2961/jlmn.2014.02.0015.
T. Veijola. Compact models for squeezed-film dampers with inertial and rarefied gas effects. Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering. Vol. 14, 2004, pp. 1109-1118.