International Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering
Volume 5, Issue 2, April 2017, Pages: 14-17
Received: Dec. 19, 2016;
Accepted: Jan. 10, 2017;
Published: Mar. 9, 2017
Views 2159 Downloads 74
Meneka Chetri, Department of Zoology, Karimganj College, Karimganj, Assam, India
Shuvasish Roy Choudhury, Department of Zoology, Karimganj College, Karimganj, Assam, India
Aniruddha Sen, Biotechnology Hub, Karimganj College, Karimganj, Assam, India
Physiological or biological stress is an organism's response to a stressor such as an environmental condition or a stimulus. Stress is a body's method of reacting to a challenge. Toxic metals are now everywhere, and affect everyone on planet earth. They have become a major cause of illness, aging and even genetic defects. Copper isessential for the function of most living organisms. But increased concentrations of copper in soils are harmful to soil organisms. Most microorganisms are known to have specific genes for resistance to stress due to heavy metals. Some of the bacteria are resistant to heavy metals and some have attained adaptation towards the toxic effects of the metals. It is also found that soils containing significant copper residues are stressful for earthworms and have been observed to have few earthworms. From the present study also, it was seen that, copper is a stressful factor for soil bacteria and earthworms and both the organisms are affected from the experimental concentrations of Copper.
Shuvasish Roy Choudhury,
Response of Pheretima Posthuma and Some Soil Fertility Enhancing Bacteria to the Copper Stress, International Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering.
Vol. 5, No. 2,
2017, pp. 14-17.
Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Nies, DH. Microbial heavy-metal resistance. Appl. Microbiol. Biotchnol. 1999; 51: 730-750.
Dumestre, JF., Guezennec, lC., Galy, R., Delmas, S., Richard and Labroue. Influence of light intensity on methanotrophic bacterial activity in Petit Saut Reservoir, French Guiana. Appl. Environ. Microbial. 1999; 65: 534–539.
Spain, A. Implications of microbial heavy metal tolerance in the environment. Rev. Undergrad. Res., 2003; 2: 1-6.
Bruins, MR. Kapil, S., Oehme, FW. Microbial resistance to metals in the environment. Ecotoxicol and Environ Safety. 2000; 45, 198-207.
deBruyn LAR. The status of soil macrofauna as indicators of soil health to monitor the sustainability of Australian agricultural soils. Ecological Economics. 1997; 23, 167-178.
Paoletti MG, Sommaggio D, Favretto MR, Petruzzelli G, Pezzarossa B, Barbafieri M (1998) Earthworms as useful bioindicators of agroecosystem sustainability in orchards and vineyards with different inputs. Applied Soil Ecology 10, 137-150.
Van Rhee JA. Development of earthworm populations in orchard soils. In: Graff O, Satchell J, editors. Progress in Soil Biology. North Holland Publishing Company, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 1967; 360-371.
Van Zwieten M., Stovold G., Van Zwieten L. Literature Review and Inventory of Alternatives to Copper for Disease Control in the Australian Organic Industry. A report for the Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation. RIRDC Project. 2004b; DAN-208A. ISBN 0 7347 1590 0, 101p.
Ma W-C. Sub lethal toxic effects of copper on growth, reproduction and litter breakdown activity in the earthworm Lumbricusrubellus, with observations on the influence of temperature and soil pH. Environmental Pollution. 1984; 33, 207-219.
Merrington G., Rogers SL., Van Zwieten L. The potential impact of long-term copper fungicide usage on soil microbial biomass and microbial activity in an avocado orchard. Australian Journal of Soil Research. 2002; 40, 749-759.
Samanta A., Bera P., Khatun M., Sinha C., Pal P., Lalee A., Mandal A. An investigation on heavy metal tolerance and antibiotic resistance properties of bacterial starinBacillus sp. isolated from municipal waste. Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology Reasearch. 2012; 1: 178-189.
Kim H., Wu X., Lee J. SLC31 (CTR) family of copper transporters in health and disease. Molecular Aspects of Medicine. 2013; 34: 561–570.
Wong MH. Ecological restoration of mine degraded soils, with emphasis on metal contaminated soils. Chemosphere. 2003; 50: 775-780.
Bruno Streit. Effects of high copper concentrations on soil invertebrates (earthworms and oribatid mites). Oecologia. 1984; 64, (3), 381-388.
Hunter, A., Johnson, M. S., 1982. Food chain relationship of copper and cadmium in contaminated grassland ecosystems. Oikos 38, 108–117.