Rapid Detection of HIV-1 Subtypes in Ghana by Heteroduplex Mobility Assay
International Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering
Volume 2, Issue 4, August 2014, Pages: 33-37
Received: Sep. 16, 2014; Accepted: Sep. 22, 2014; Published: Sep. 30, 2014
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Authors
Nicholas Israel Nii-Trebi, School of Biomedical and Allied Health Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana
James Ashun Mensah Brandful, Department of Virology, Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana
William Kwabena Ampofo, Department of Virology, Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana
Billal Obeng Musah, School of Biomedical and Allied Health Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana
Jacob Samson Barnor, Department of Virology, Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana
Kenzo Tokunaga, Department of Pathology, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan
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Abstract
Background: In Ghana, the HIV-1 profile has been quite dynamic. Previous reports identified HIV-1 subtypes A, D and G present and recently the CRF02_AG has been described as the predominant molecular form of HIV-1 in Kumasi, Ghana. This underscores the need for constant molecular characterization of HIV-1 species in the country. Objective: To provide current updates on the nature of HIV subtypes in Ghana, there is need for a user-friendly tool for routine monitoring of subtypes in the absence of cost-intensive and skill-demanding sequencing techniques. This work demonstrates the use of heteroduplex mobility assay (HMA) for rapid subtype detection of HIV-1 isolated from Ghanaian patients. Method: Viruses from 15 antibody-positive HIV-1 patients were isolated directly by co-culturing peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) with phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated donor PBMCs from an HIV seronegative individual and through HeLa cells positive for CD4/CXCR4/CCR5 (MAGIC-5A cells). That was followed by proviral DNA extraction. Heteroduplex Mobility Assay (HMA) technique was then performed on the HIV gag gene. Results: Using the HMA technique, newly isolated HIV-1 strains were subtyped as follows: There were seven subtype A (47%), two subtype G (13%) and six (40%) A/G recombinants. Conclusion: The HIV-1 CRF02_AG in Ghana has spread much more rapidly than the previously predominant subtype A over the years. Constant molecular characterization of HIV strains is necessary to enable clear elucidation of the prevailing HIV species in Ghana. This study presents the HMA as a useful tool for monitoring subtype emergence and distribution in the country.
Keywords
HIV-1 Subtype, HMA, Ghana
To cite this article
Nicholas Israel Nii-Trebi, James Ashun Mensah Brandful, William Kwabena Ampofo, Billal Obeng Musah, Jacob Samson Barnor, Kenzo Tokunaga, Rapid Detection of HIV-1 Subtypes in Ghana by Heteroduplex Mobility Assay, International Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering. Vol. 2, No. 4, 2014, pp. 33-37. doi: 10.11648/j.ijbse.20140204.12
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