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Visual Status of HIV and Non-HIV Infected Children in Relation to Anti-retroviral Drug Use and CD4+ Count in Jos, Plateau State Nigeria
Advances in Surgical Sciences
Volume 8, Issue 2, December 2020, Pages: 19-26
Received: Sep. 17, 2019; Accepted: Oct. 22, 2019; Published: Sep. 7, 2020
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Authors
Ajibola Barth Meraiyebu, Department of Physiology, Bingham University, Karu, Nigeria
Grace Inga Awilo, Department of Physiology, Bingham University, Karu, Nigeria
Aminyene Essien Meraiyebu, Limi Hospital, Abuja, Nigeria
Olanrewaju Olaiya, ProHealth International, Abuja, Nigeria
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Abstract
In immunodeficiency diseases such as Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection, various body functions may be affected; visual function could be one of them. In a child, there are predictable adverse outcomes of the disease that bother physical and mental development. This study sought to investigate any potential compromise of visual function amongst HIV-infected children on anti-retroviral drugs known as Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) use by comparing the visual acuity, colour sense and field of vision in infected and non-infected children. One hundred (100) children aged between 5 to 15 years consisting of fifty (50) HIV infected and fifty (50) non-HIV infected were selected through random sampling. Visual acuity test (Snellen’s method), colour sense test (Ishihara chart method) and field of vision test (confrontational method) were carried out. Latest Cluster of Differentiation 4 (CD4+) count of the HIV infected subjects also was collected. Statistical analysis was carried out using the Student T Test and ANOVA. The mean visual acuity of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infected children was slightly low compared to the negative group (94.2±4.61and 96.4±12.58 respectively) but was not statistically significant (p>0.05). The mean of Ishihara colour sense test and that of the field of vision test also showed no statistically significant change between infected and non-infected children. Mean CD4+ count of the HIV infected children increased with age and use of anti-retroviral drugs. From 11 to 15 years, percentage defect in visual acuity increased amongst the HIV infected children, compared to the other ages but not statistically significant (p>0.05). It was concluded that visual acuity decreases slightly with improving CD4+ count and increasing age, for HIV positive children on anti-retroviral drugs. These parameters could be observed in subsequent years and subjects monitored for further investigation.
Keywords
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART), Visual Acuity Test, Colour Sense Test, Field of Vision, Cluster of Differentiation 4 (CD4+), Anti-retroviral Drugs
To cite this article
Ajibola Barth Meraiyebu, Grace Inga Awilo, Aminyene Essien Meraiyebu, Olanrewaju Olaiya, Visual Status of HIV and Non-HIV Infected Children in Relation to Anti-retroviral Drug Use and CD4+ Count in Jos, Plateau State Nigeria, Advances in Surgical Sciences. Vol. 8, No. 2, 2020, pp. 19-26. doi: 10.11648/j.ass.20200802.12
Copyright
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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