Availability, Coverage and Geographical Distribution of Emergency Obstetric and Neonatal Care Services in Tanzania Mainland
Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics
Volume 5, Issue 1, January 2017, Pages: 1-8
Received: Oct. 4, 2016;
Accepted: Jan. 19, 2017;
Published: Feb. 15, 2017
Views 1071 Downloads 43
Projestine Muganyizi, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Edward Maswanya, National Institute for Medical Research, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Stella Kilima, National Institute for Medical Research, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Grades Stanley, National Institute for Medical Research, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Ahmad Makuwani, Ministry of Health Community Development Gender Elderly and Children, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Julius Massaga, Ministry of Health Community Development Gender Elderly and Children, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Victor Bakengesa, Ministry of Health Community Development Gender Elderly and Children, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Georgina Msemo, Ministry of Health Community Development Gender Elderly and Children, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
In order to assess the availability of Emergency Obstetric and Neonatal Care (EmONC) services in Tanzania Mainland, a Cross-sectional survey of a National sample of obstetric care facilities was conducted in 2015. We adapted the Averting Maternal Deaths and Disabilities (AMDD) tool and did spatial mapping using a calibrated Global Positioning System (GPS) Essential Software for Android and Arc Geographical Information System (GIS) software. Data were analysed using STATA, SPSS and Excel computer programs. Ethical approval was granted by the National Institute for Medical Research and the Ministry of Health, Community Development, Gender, Elderly and Children. We identified 5207 obstetric care facilities which is equivalent to 59.7 facilities per 500,000 population. We surveyed 2405 (46.2%) facilities of which 251 (10.4%) had provided all the 7 Basic Emergency Obstetric and Neonatal Care (BEmONC) in past 3 months. Among these, 130 had provided Comprehensive Emergency Obstetric and Neonatal Care (CEmONC). The UN benchmarks for BEmONC and CEmONC facility densities were attained or exceeded by 40% and 76% in all 25 regions respectively. EmONC facilities were dominated by hospitals and were clustered in cities and townships. In conclusions, the distribution of EmONC facilities in Tanzania Mainland is suboptimal in more than half of regions with clustering around cities and townships.
Availability, Coverage and Geographical Distribution of Emergency Obstetric and Neonatal Care Services in Tanzania Mainland, Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics.
Vol. 5, No. 1,
2017, pp. 1-8.
Vora KS, Yasobant S, Patel A, Upadhyay A, Mavalankar DV. Has Chiranjeevi Yojana changed the geographic availability of free comprehensive emergency obstetric care services in Gujarat, India? Glob Health Action 2015;8: 28977.
Kikwete PJM. Together, let us hold ourselves, and each other, accountable for keeping our promises to Tanzania’s women and children. Let us show that, for Tanzania, Women and Children Come First. 2014.
Stal KB, Pallangyo P, van Elteren M, van den Akker T, van Roosmalen J, Nyamtema A. Women's perceptions of the quality of emergency obstetric care in a referral hospital in rural Tanzania. Trop Med Int Health 2015;20: 934-40.
Ueno E, Adegoke AA, Masenga G, Fimbo J, Msuya SE. Skilled birth attendants in Tanzania: a descriptive study of cadres and emergency obstetric care signal functions performed. Matern Child Health J 2015;19: 155-69.
MOHSW. Human Resource for Health and Social Welfare Strategic Plan 2014 - 2019. Dar es Salaam: Ministry of Health and Social Welfare; 2014.
WHO., UNICEF., UNFPA., AMDD. A handbook Monitoring emergency obstetric care Available: http://whqlibdocwhoint/publications/2009/9789241547734_engpdf. In. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2009.
AMDD. Averting Maternal Death and Disability Program (AMDD). Needs Assessment of Emergency Obstetric and Newborn Care (EmONC): Facilitator's Guide. In: AMDD, ed. New York: Columbia University; 2009.
Bosomprah S, Tatem AJ, Dotse-Gborgbortsi W, Aboagye P, Matthews Z. Spatial distribution of emergency obstetric and newborn care services in Ghana: Using the evidence to plan interventions. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2016;132: 130-4.
Alam B, Mridha MK, Biswas TK, Roy L, Rahman M, Chowdhury ME. Coverage of emergency obstetric care and availability of services in public and private health facilities in Bangladesh. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2015;131: 63-9.
Kongnyuy EJ, Hofman J, Mlava G, Mhango C, van den Broek N. Availability, utilisation and quality of basic and comprehensive emergency obstetric care services in Malawi. Matern Child Health J 2009;13: 687-94.
Abegunde D, Kabo IA, Sambisa W, et al. Availability, utilization, and quality of emergency obstetric care services in Bauchi State, Nigeria. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2015;128: 251-5.
Owens L, Semrau K, Mbewe R, et al. The state of routine and emergency obstetric and neonatal care in Southern Province, Zambia. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2015;128: 53-7.
Pattinson RC, Makin JD, Pillay Y, Van den Broek N, Moodley J. Basic and comprehensive emergency obstetric and neonatal care in 12 South African health districts. S Afr Med J 2015;105: 256-60.
Fakih B, Nofly AA, Ali AO, et al. The status of maternal and newborn health care services in Zanzibar. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2016;16: 134.
Adegoke A, Utz B, Msuya SE, van den Broek N. Skilled Birth Attendants: who is who? A descriptive study of definitions and roles from nine Sub Saharan African countries. PLoS One 2012;7: e40220.
Olsen OE, Ndeki S, Norheim OF. Availability, distribution and use of emergency obstetric care in northern Tanzania. Health Policy Plan 2005;20: 167-75.
Paxton A, Maine D, Freedman L, Fry D, Lobis S. The evidence for emergency obstetric care. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2005; 88: 181-93.
Eniola A. Bamgboye EA, Akindele O. Adebiyi, A. O., Fatiregun, A. A. Assessment of Emergency Obstetric Care Services in Ibadan-Ibarapa Health Zone, Oyo State, Nigeria. African Journal of Reproductive Health 2016;20: 88-97.
Ng’anjo PS, Fylkesnes K, Moland KM, Byskov J, Kiserud T. Rural-Urban Inequity in Unmet Obstetric Needs and Functionality of Emergency Obstetric Care Services in a Zambian District. PLoS ONE Editor: Hamid Reza Baradaran, Iran University of 2016;11.
Tanzania. URo. Health Sector Strategic Plan III Midterm Evaluation. Dar es Salaam: Ministry of Health and Social Welfare; 2013.