Pattern of Esophageal Cancer in Sudan
American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine
Volume 4, Issue 6, November 2016, Pages: 166-169
Received: Sep. 26, 2016; Accepted: Oct. 5, 2016; Published: Oct. 27, 2016
Views 3345      Downloads 105
Ali Adam Elhadi, Department of Internal Medicine, Medical College, Omdurman Islamic University, Omdurman, Sudan
Hyder Osman Mirghani, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tabuk, Tabuk, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Yassin Ibrahim, Department of community medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tabuk, Tabuk, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Ibrahim Abdullah Albalawi, Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tabuk, Tabuk, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Article Tools
Follow on us
Objectives: Carcinoma of the esophagus is the eights common cancer worldwide causing a lot of morbidity and mortality, defining the risk factors could aid prevention. In the current study, we aimed to explore the pattern of esophageal cancer in Sudan. Methods: Seventy-two patients referred for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and diagnosed with esophageal cancer were studied in the endoscopy unit of Omdurman Teaching Hospital during the period November 2013 to April 2016. Endoscopy was doneand histopathology reported for all patients. Information collected were: demographic data, symptoms due to esophageal cancer, associated risk factors, type and site of the lesion. Results: Out of the seventy-two patients with esophageal carcinoma their ages ranged from 31-93 years with a mean of 62.57±15.1years, 40.1% were males. The commonest presentation was dysphagia (98.6%) followed by loss of weight (93.1%). The majority were adenocarcinomas [80.6%], 91.6% occur in middle and lower thirds of the esophagus. Reflux esophagitis was reported in 40.3%, achalasia in 29.3%, while hot drinks consumption was reported in 20.8%. A significant statistical difference was evident between adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma regarding Achalasia presentation P-value< 0.05, no significant differences were found regarding age, sex, reflux esophagitis, hot and spicy food, and obesity P-value> 0.05. Conclusion: Adenocarcinoma was commoner than squamous cell carcinoma, with the lower third of the esophagus more involved. A significant statistical difference was found between squamous cell adenocarcinoma and regarding achalasia., no significant differences were found regarding age, sex, reflux esophagitis, hot and spicy food, and obesity.
Esophageal Cancer, Pattern, Sudan
To cite this article
Ali Adam Elhadi, Hyder Osman Mirghani, Yassin Ibrahim, Ibrahim Abdullah Albalawi, Pattern of Esophageal Cancer in Sudan, American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Vol. 4, No. 6, 2016, pp. 166-169. doi: 10.11648/j.ajcem.20160406.12
Copyright © 2016 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Buas MF, Vaughan TL. Epidemiology and risk factors for gastroesophageal junction tumors: understanding the rising incidence of this disease. SeminRadiatOncol 2013; 23:3.
Torre LA, Bray F, Siegel RL, et al. Global cancer statistics, 2012. CA Cancer J Clin 2015; 65:87.
Gholipour C, Shalchi RA, Abbasi M. A histopathological study of esophageal cancer on the western side of the Caspian littoral from 1994 to 2003. Dis Esophagus 2008; 21:322.
Pohl H, Sirovich B, Welch HG. Esophageal adenocarcinoma incidence: are we reaching the peak? Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2010; 19:1468.
Doumi EA, Ahmed MA, Hamad AM. Pattern and incidence of cancer at El Obeid Hospital, Western Sudan. Sudan JMS 2009;4 (1): 43-46
Ferlay J, Shin HR, Bray F, et al. GLOBOCAN 2008 v1.2, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC CancerBase No.10 [Internet]. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer. Available from Accessed June 18, 2013.
Otterstatter MC, Brierley JD, De P, et al. Esophageal cancer in Canada: trends according to morphology and anatomical location. Can J Gastroenterol 2012; 26(10):723–27.
Melhado RE, Alderson D, Tucker O. The Changing Face of Esophageal Cancer. Cancers 2010, 2, 1379-1404; doi:10.3390/cancers2031379
MinamiH, Yamaguchi N, Matsushima K, Akazawa Y, Ohnita K, Takeshima F, Nakayama T, Hayashi T, Inoue H, Nakao K, IsomotoH. Improvement of endocytoscopic findings after per oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) in esophageal achalasia; does POEM reduce the risk of developing esophageal carcinoma? Per oral endoscopic myotomy, endocytoscopy and carcinogenesis. BMC Gastroenterol. 2013; 13: 22.
O'Neill OM, Johnston BT, Coleman HG. achalasia: a review of clinical diagnosis, epidemiology, treatment and outcomes. World J Gastroenterol. 2013 Sep 21; 19(35):5806-12. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v19.i35.5806.
Boulos PB, Elmasri SH. Carcinoma of the esophagus in the Sudan. Trop Geogr Med. 1979 Jun; 29(2):150-4.
Pandeya N, Olsen CM, Whiteman DC. Sex differences in the proportion of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cases attributable to tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption. Cancer Epidemiol. 2013 Oct; 37(5): 579-84. doi: 10.1016/j.canep.2013.05.011. Epub 2013 Jul 2.
Crane SJ, Richard Locke G, 3rd; Harmsen, W. S.; Diehl, N. N.; Zinsmeister, A. R.; Joseph Melton, L., 3rd; Romero, Y.; Talley, N.J. The changing incidence of esophageal and gastric adenocarcinoma by anatomic sub-site. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. 2007; 25, 447–453.
Leeuwenburgh I, Scholten P, Alderliesten J, Tilanus HW, Looman CW, Steijerberg EW, Kuipers EJ. Long-term esophageal cancer risk in patients with primary achalasia: a prospective study. Am J Gastroenterol. 2010 Oct; 105(10): 2144-9. doi: 10.1038/ajg.2010.263. Epub 2010 Jun 29.
Andrici J, Eslick GD. Hot Food and Beverage Consumption and the Risk of Esophageal Cancer: A Meta-Analysis. Am J Prev Med. 2015 Dec; 49(6): 952-60. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2015.07.023.
Islami F, Boffetta P, Ren JS, Pedoeim L, Khatib D, and Kamangar F. High-temperature beverages and Foods and Esophageal Cancer Risk -- A Systematic Review. Int J Cancer 2009. Aug 1; 125(3): 491–524.
Chung CS, Lee YC, Wu MS. Prevention strategies for esophageal cancer: Perspectives of the East vs. West. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. 2015 Dec; 29(6): 869-83. doi: 10.1016/j.bpg.2015.09.010. Epub 2015 Oct 9.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186