Efficacy of Commercially Available Anthelmintics in Controlling Gastrointestinal Nematodes in Goats Managed Under Natural Conditions in the South Western Highlands of Uganda
American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine
Volume 3, Issue 6, November 2015, Pages: 355-363
Received: Dec. 20, 2015;
Published: Dec. 21, 2015
Views 4150 Downloads 152
Katali Kirungi Benda, National Agricultural Research Organisation (NARO), Kachwekano Zonal Agricultural Research and Development Institute (KAZARDI), Kabale, Uganda
Andrew Ampaire, National Agricultural Research Organisation (NARO), Kachwekano Zonal Agricultural Research and Development Institute (KAZARDI), Kabale, Uganda
Jenninah Komungyeyo, National Agricultural Research Organisation (NARO), Kachwekano Zonal Agricultural Research and Development Institute (KAZARDI), Kabale, Uganda
Robert Mukiibi, Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutritional Sciences (AFNS), University of Alberta, Canada
Charles Masembe, Department of Biological Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda
Robert Onzima, National Agricultural Research Organisation (NARO), Kachwekano Zonal Agricultural Research and Development Institute (KAZARDI), Kabale, Uganda
Goat production is of great importance especially to the rural farmers in Uganda, serving a number of socio-economic functions. Among the limitations of goat production in Uganda are Gastro Intestinal Nematodes (GINs). These are usually controlled using commercial Anthelmintic compounds. Due to continual improper usage of these drugs by the farmers, evolution of resistant strains has resulted thus affecting their effectiveness in controlling the GINs. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of four commercially available anthelmintics used for controlling Gastro Intestinal Nematodes (GINs) in goats on natural pastures in the south western highlands of Uganda. A mini survey was conducted prior to the current study to get information about the most commonly used anthelmintics in the study area. Initially, 240 goats were enrolled into the study and, 210 were used in the final analysis. The goats were randomly allocated to 5 different treatment groups at district level namely; untreated controls (CTRL), Albendazole 10% (ABZ), Ivermectin (IVE), Levamisole (LEV) and Closantel (CL). Faecal and blood samples were collected from each animal at 0, 14, 28 and 42 days post-treatment respectively and analysed for faecal egg counts (FEC) using the modified McMaster method. The percentage reduction, FECR % was calculated from the arithmetic mean and difference in FEC between breeds, district and age were assessed by univariate analysis of variance in SPSS. Results at day zero indicated that age and district had significant effect on FEC (P-value= 0.001 and 0.035respectively) while breed had no significant effect (P-value=0.465). At 14 days post-treatment, district, breed and treatment had significant effects on FEC (P-value=0.00, 0.02 and 0.05 respectively) while age was not (P=0.931). Albendazole and Levamizol were the most used drugs in the study area while Closantel and Ivermectin were the least used. Drug efficacy varied between districts, with the highest mean Fecal Egg Count Reduction (FECR) achieved with Closantel (FECR%=100%), while the lowest mean FECR observed with Albendazole (FECR%=49%) in Rukungiri and Kisoro districts respectively. Ivermectin was effective in all the four districts (FECRT% > 95%). Our study confirmed presence of Anthelmintic resistance (AR) by GIN in goats in the south western highlands of Uganda. Closantel is highly effective against GINs, but albendazole is not due to its wide spread usage. Further research is necessary to find and validate alternative strategies for the control of GINs in goats.
Katali Kirungi Benda,
Efficacy of Commercially Available Anthelmintics in Controlling Gastrointestinal Nematodes in Goats Managed Under Natural Conditions in the South Western Highlands of Uganda, American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine.
Vol. 3, No. 6,
2015, pp. 355-363.
Almeida, F. A., Garcia, K. C. O. D., Torgerson, P. R., & Amarante, A. F. T. (2010). Multiple resistance to anthelmintics by Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis in sheep in Brazil. Parasitology International, 59(4), 622-625. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.parint.2010.09.006.
Blackie, S. (2014). A Review of the Epidemiology of Gastrointestinal Nematode Infections in Sheep and Goats in Ghana (Vol. 6).
Byaruhanga, C., & Okwee-Acai, J. (2013). Efficacy of albendazole, levamisole and ivermectin against gastro-intestinal nematodes in naturally infected goats at the National Semi-arid Resources Research Institute, Serere, Uganda. Veterinary Parasitology, 195(1–2), 183-186. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2013.01.007.
Coles, G., Bauer, C., Borgsteede, F., Geerts, S., Klei, T., Taylor, M., & Waller, P. (1992). World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP) methods for the detection of anthelmintic resistance in nematodes of veterinary importance. Veterinary parasitology, 44(1), 35-44.
Foreyt, W. J. (2013). Veterinary parasitology reference manual: John Wiley & Sons.
Hoste, H., & Torres-Acosta, J. F. J. (2011). Non chemical control of helminths in ruminants: Adapting solutions for changing worms in a changing world. Veterinary Parasitology, 180 (1–2), 144-154. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2011.05.035.
Kabasa, J. D., Opuda-Asibo, J., & ter Meulen, U. (2000). The Effect of Oral Administration of Polyethylene Glycol on Faecal Helminth Egg Counts in Pregnant Goats Grazed on Browse Containing Condensed Tannins. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 32(2), 73-86. doi: 10.1023/A:1005274502184.
Kaplan, R. M. (2004). Drug resistance in nematodes of veterinary importance: a status report. Trends in parasitology, 20(10), 477-481.
KAZARDI. (2008). Farming systems and livehood analysis of the south western highlands Agro-Ecological Zone. Retrieved from NARO-Kachwekano ZARDI.
Lapenga, O., Kenneth., & Rubaire-Akiiki, C. (2009). The Effect of Helminthiasis on Weight Gains and Carcass Values of Young Indigenous Goats in Uganda. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 8: 1993-1998., 8, 1993 - 1998.
Leathwick, D. M. (2013). Managing anthelmintic resistance – Parasite ﬁtness, drug use strategy and the potential for reversion towards susceptibility. Veterinary parasitology, 198(2013), 145- 153.
Leathwick, D. M., Pomroy, W. E., & Heath, A. C. (2001). Anthelmintic resistance in New Zealand. N Z Vet J, 49(6), 227-235. doi: 10.1080/00480169.2001.36237.
MAAIF. (2011). Statistical Abstract. Entebbe - Uganda: Ministry of Agriculture Animal Industry and Fisheries (MAAIF).
Mandonnet, N., Aumont, G., Fleury, J., Arquet, R., Varo, H., Gruner, L. Khang, J. V. T. (2001). Assessment of genetic variability of resistance to gastrointestinal nematode parasites in Creole goats in the humid tropics. Journal of Animal Science, 79(7), 1706-1712. Retrieved from ://WOS:000169848100009.
Nabukenya, I., Rubaire-Akiiki, C., Olila, D., Muhangi, D., & Höglund, J. (2014). Anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes in goats and evaluation of FAMACHA diagnostic marker in Uganda. Veterinary Parasitology, 205(3–4), 666-675. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2014.07.019.
Nsereko, G., Emudong, P., Magona, J., Odoch, T., & Okwee-Acai, J. (2013). Anthelmintic efficacy of Albendazole, Levamisole and Ivermectin against gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infections in goats on natural pastures in Gomba District, Uganda. Uganda Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 14 (1), 75 - 85.
Peacock, C. (1996). Improving Goat Production in the Tropics - A Manual for Development Workers. UK: Oxfam Professional.
Sissay, M. M., Asefa, A., Uggla, A., & Waller, P. J. (2006). Anthelmintic resistance of nematode parasites of small ruminants in eastern Ethiopia: Exploitation of refugia to restore anthelmintic efficacy. Veterinary Parasitology, 135 (3–4), 337-346. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2005.09.005.
UIA. (2011). Agriculture - Meat Sector Profile. Uganda Retrieved from http://www.ugandainvest.go.ug/images/Download_Center/SECTOR_PROFILE/meat_profile_sector.pdf.
Van Wyk, J. A., & Bath, G. F. (2002). The FAMACHA system for managing haemonchosis in sheep and goats by clinically identifying individual animals for treatment. Vet Res, 33(5), 509-529. doi:10.1051/vetres:2002036.
Van Wyk, J. A., Stenson, M. O., Van der Merwe, J. S., Vorster, R. J., & Viljoen, P. G. (1999). Anthelmintic resistance in South Africa: surveys indicate an extremely serious situation in sheep and goat farming. Onderstepoort J Vet Res, 66(4), 273-284.
Vattaa, A. F., & Lindberg, A. L. (2006). Managing anthelmintic resistance in small ruminant livestock of resource-poor farmers in South Africa. J S Afr Vet Assoc, 77(1), 2-8.