American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine
Volume 3, Issue 3, May 2015, Pages: 78-82
Received: Mar. 24, 2015;
Accepted: Apr. 7, 2015;
Published: Apr. 17, 2015
Views 4483 Downloads 300
Muhammad Hayun, Department of Pediatrics, Medical Faculty of Hasanuddin University, Makassar, South Sulawesi, Indonesia
Ema Alasiry, Department of Pediatrics, Medical Faculty of Hasanuddin University, Makassar, South Sulawesi, Indonesia
Dasril Daud, Department of Pediatrics, Medical Faculty of Hasanuddin University, Makassar, South Sulawesi, Indonesia
Dwi Bahagia Febriani, Department of Pediatrics, Medical Faculty of Hasanuddin University, Makassar, South Sulawesi, Indonesia
Djauhariah Madjid, Department of Pediatrics, Medical Faculty of Hasanuddin University, Makassar, South Sulawesi, Indonesia
Introduction: Neonatal sepsis is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in newborn. Early onset neonatal sepsis (EONS) is a severe disease and has high mortality rate. The clinical signs of EONS are nonspecific and the confirmation of diagnosis may consuming time. Therefore, the diagnostic approach is necessary by considering the risk factors. Objective: The aims of this study are to identify the risk factors of newborn infants whose mother has risk factors of sepsis affecting the occurrence of EONS. Methods: This is a cohort retrospective study, conducted from January 2013 to June 2014 in Neonatology Installation of Dr. Wahidin Sudirohusodo hospital, Makassar. The sample population included newborn infants whose mother has risk factors of sepsis. The information of the risk factors from infant and diagnoses of EONS was obtained from their medical record. Multivariate analysis and logistic regression formula were performed to predict the occurrence of EONS. There were 221 samples: 62 cases of EONS and 159 of control. Results: The results of multivariate analysis revealed 3 risk factors from infant which were associated to EONS: APGAR score <7 (p= 0.000, AOR 14.05 with 95% CI 5.48-35.98), gestational age <37 week (p= 0.000, AOR 13.45 with 95% CI 3.91-46.26), birth weight <1500 gram (p= 0.04, AOR 4.9 with 95% CI 1.08-22.25). Conclusion: Based on this study, it concluded that the risk factors of EOS were: APGAR score, gestational age and birth weight.
Dwi Bahagia Febriani,
The Risk Factors of Early Onset Neonatal Sepsis, American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine.
Vol. 3, No. 3,
2015, pp. 78-82.
Aminullah A. Sepsis pada bayi baru lahir. Dalam Buku Ajar Neonatologi. Edisi I. IDAI Jakarta. 2008; 170-187.
WHO. Media Centre: Newborns, reducing mortality. 2009.
Departemen Kesehatan Republik Indonesia. Survei Demografi dan Kesehatan Indonesia. 2011
Gomella TL, Cunningham MD, Eyal FG, Zenk KE. (ed.). Infectious Diseases. Neonatology: Management, Procedures, On-Call Problems, Diseases, and Drugs. 5th Edition. McGraw-Hill Companies. 2009; 434-81.
Levy O. Innate imunity of the newborn: Basic mechanisms and clinical correlates. Nat Rev Immunol. 2007;7(5): 379-90
Rohsiswatmo R. Multidrug resistance in a neonatal unit and therapeutic implications. Paediatrica Indonesiana. 2006; 46: 25-31.
Anderson-Berry AL, Rosenkrantz T. (2010). Neonatal Sepsis (Online). www.medscape.com.
Van Der Zwet WC, Catsburg A, Van Elburg RM, Savelkoul PHM, Vandenbroucke-Grauls CMJE. Mannose-Binding Lectin (MBL) genotype in relation to risk of nosocomial infection in pre-term neonates in the neonatal intensive care unit. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2008;14: 130-135
Shah GS, Budhathoki S, Das BK, Mandal RN. Risk factors in early neonatal sepsis. Kathmandu University Medical Journal. 2006; 4(2): 187-91.
Chiesa C, Panero A, Osborn JF, Simonetty AF, Pacifico L. Diagnosis of neonatal sepsis: A clinical and laboratory challenge. Clinical Chemistry. 2004;50(2): 279-287
Canadian Paediatric Society. Management of infant at increased risk for sepsis. Paediatr Child Health. 2007;12: 893-898
Chacko B, Sohi I. Early onset neonatal sepsis. Indian Pediatr. 2005;72: 23-26
Bouman A, Schipper M, Heineman M, Faas M. Gender difference in the non-specific and specific immune response in humans. American Journal of Reproductive Immunology. 2004;5(2): 19-26
Soman M, Green B, Daling J. Risks factors for early neonatal sepsis. Am J Epidemiol. 1985;121: 712-19.
Ringer S. Resuscitation in the delivery room. In: Manual of Neonatal Care.Ed. Cloherty J., Eichenwald E., and Stark A. 6th Ed. Wolters Kluwer. Philadelphia. 2004; 518-520
Adcock L, Papile L. Perinatal Asphyxia. In: Manual of Neonatal Care. Ed. Cloherty, J, Eichenwald,E. and Stark,A. 6th Ed. Wolters Kluwer. Philadelphia. 2004: 518-520
Oddie S, Emblrton N. Risk factors for early onset neonatal group b streptococcal sepsis; Case Control Study. BMJ. 2002;325(7359): 308–311
Leal AY, Alvarez-Nemegyei J, Velazquez JR, Rosado-Quiab U, Diego-Rodriguez N, Paz-Baeza E, Davilla-Velazquez J. Risk factors and prognosis for neonatal sepsis in southeastern Mexico: analysis of a four-year historic cohort follow-up. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. 2012;12: 48
Petrova A, Mehta R. Dysfunction of innate immunity and associated pathology in neonates. Indian Pediatr. 2007;74: 185-91
Bhat R, Baby LP. Early onset of neonatal sepsis: Analysis of the risk factors and the bacterial isolates by using the bact alert system. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. 2011;5(7): 1385-1388
Cohen-Wolkowiez M, Moran C, Benjamin DK, Cotten MC, Clark RH, Benjamin Jr DK, Smith PB. Early and late onset sepsis in late preterm infants. Pediatric Infect Dis J. 2009;28(12): 1052-56
Puopolo KM. Epidemiology of Neonatal Early-onset Sepsis. NeoReview. 2008; 9(12): 571-579.
Benitz WE, Gould JB, Druzin ML. Risk Factors for Early Onset Group B-Streptococcal Sepsis: Estimation of Odds Ratios by Critical Literature Review. Pediatrics. 1999;103: c77
Haque KN. Neonatal Sepsis in the Very Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants: Part 1: Review of Patho-physiology. Journal of Medical science. 2010;3(1): 1-10
Seidel BM, Schulze B, Schubert S, Borte M. Oral mucosal immunocompetence in preterm infants in the first 9 months of life. Eur J Pediatr. 2000;159: 789
Nussbaum C. Neurophil and endothelial adhesive function during human fetal ontogeny. J. Leukor. Biol. 2012;93: 175-184
Rebuck N, Gibson A, Finn A. Neutrophil adhesion molecules in term and premature infants; normal or enhanced leucocyte integrins but defctive L-Selectin expression and shedding. Clinical and Experimental Immunology. 1995;101: 183-9
Carr R, Huizinga TW, Kleijer M, Davies JM. Changes in plasma FcRIII demonstrate increasing receptor production during late pregnancy and preterm birth. Pediatr Res. 1992;32: 505-8
Gahr M, Blanke R, Speer CP. Polymorph nuclear leukocyte function in term and preterm newborn infants. Biology of the Neonate. 1985;48: 15-20
Mussi-Pinhata MM, Rego MA. Immunological peculiarities of extremely preterm infants: A challenge for the prevention of nosocomial sepsis. J.Pediatr (Rio J.). (2005); 81: S59-S68.
Gerdes JS. Diagnosis and management of bacterial infections in the neonates. Pediat Clin Neonatal Am. 2004; 51: 939-959.