The Effect of Arm Swing Exercise on Gait and Balance in Stroke Patients
American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine
Volume 2, Issue 6, November 2014, Pages: 151-155
Received: Oct. 19, 2014; Accepted: Nov. 3, 2014; Published: Nov. 21, 2014
Views 3322      Downloads 310
June-Seok Ma, Department of Physical Therapy, Korea National University of Transportation, ChungJu, Republic of Korea
Hyun-Joo Kim, Department of Physical Therapy, Korea National University of Transportation, ChungJu, Republic of Korea
Article Tools
Follow on us
The aim of this study is investigate the effect of arm swing exercise on balance and gait in stroke patients. Group A (n=8): 0.5kg strap was applied during arm swing exercise in experimental group for 30 minutes a day, 3 times a week for 4 weeks. Group B (n=8): Subjects in control group performed neurodevelopmental treatment for 30 minutes a day, 3 times a week for 4 weeks. Subjects were measured for balance and gait on Berg Balance scale, 10meter walking test and Six-minute walk test. There were significant changed of 10Meter Walking Test and 6-Minute Walk Test after experimental group performed the reinforced arm swing exercise of upper extremities and control group was provided with neurodevelopment treatment(p <0.05). However, there was no statistically significant found difference change of Berg Balance Scale in experimental group (p >0.05). The application reinforced arm swing exercise can be said to be effective intervention for the gait training in hemiplegic stroke patient.
Arm Swing, Stroke, Gait
To cite this article
June-Seok Ma, Hyun-Joo Kim, The Effect of Arm Swing Exercise on Gait and Balance in Stroke Patients, American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Vol. 2, No. 6, 2014, pp. 151-155. doi: 10.11648/j.ajcem.20140206.16
O'Sullivan, SB & Schmitz, TJ (2007). Physical Rehabilitation: Assessment and Treatment, 5th ed. F.A. Davis Company, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
Walker C, Brouwer BJ, Culham EG. Use of visual feedback in retraining balance following acute stroke. Phys Ther. 2000; 80(9): 886-95.
Smania N, Montagnana B, Faccioli S, Fiaschi A, Aglioti SM. Rehabilitation of somatic sensation and related deficit of motor control in patients with pure sensory stroke. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2003; 84(11): 1692-702.
Geurts AC, de Haart M, van Nes IJ, Duysens J. A review of standing balance recovery from stroke. Gait Posture. 2005; 22(3): 267-81.
Pereira LC, Botelho AC, Martins EF. Relationships between body symmetry during weight-bearing and functional reach among chronic hemiparetic patients. Rev Bras Fisioter. 2010; 14(3): 229-66.
Horvat M, Ray C, Ramsey VK, Miszko T, Keeney R, Blasch BB. Compensatory analysis and strategies for balance in indivisuals with visual impairments. J. Visual Impairment & Blindness, 2003; 97(11), 695-7033.
Dean CM, Channon EF, Hall JM. Sitting training early after stroke improves sitting ability and quality and carries over to standing up but not to walking: a randomised trial. Aust J Physiother. 2007; 53(2): 97-102.
Dobkin BH, Firestine A, West M, Saremi K, Woods R. Ankle dorsiflexion as an fMRI paradigm to assay motor control for walking during rehabilitation. Neuroimage. 2004; 23(1): 370-81.
Mauritz KH. Gait training in hemiplegia. Eur J Neurol. 2002; 9(1): 23-9.
Chen G, Patten C. Treadmill training with harness support: selection of parameters for individuals with poststroke hemiparesis. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2006 ; 43(4): 485-98.
Pohl PS, Perera S, Duncan PW, Maletsky R, Whitman R, Studenski S. Gains in distance walking in a 3-month follow-up poststroke: what changes? Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2004; 18(1): 30-6.
Eich HJ, Mach H, Werner C, Hesse S. Aerobic treadmill plus Bobath walking training improves walking in subacute stroke: a randomized controlled trial. Clin Rehabil. 2004; 18(6): 640-51.
Werner C, Von Frankenberg S, Treig T, Konrad M, Hesse S. Treadmill training with partial body weight support and an electromechanical gait trainer for restoration of gait in subacute stroke patients: a randomized crossover study. Stroke. 2002; 33(12): 2895-901.
Ford MP, Wagenaar RC, Newell KM. Arm constraint and walking in healthy adults. Gait Posture. 2007; 26(1): 135-41.
Umberger BR. Effects of suppressing arm swing on kinematics, kinetics, and energetics of human walking. J Biomech. 2008; 41(11): 2575-80.
Kim JS, Kwon OH. The effect of arm swing on gait in post-stroke hemiparesis. Department of Physical Therapy. 2012; 7(1): 95-101.
Menz HB, Lord SR, Fitzpatrick RC. Acceleration patterns of the head and pelvis when walking on level and irregular surfaces. Gait Posture. 2003; 18(1): 35-46.
Eke-Okoro ST, Gregoric M, Larsson LE. Alterations in gait resulting from deliberate changes of arm-swing amplitude and phase. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 1997; 12(7-8): 516-21.
Lulić TJ, Susić A, Kodvanj J. Effects of arm swing on mechanical parameters of human gait. Coll Antropol. 2008; 32(3): 869-73.
Stephenson JL, De Serres SJ, Lamontagne A. The effect of arm movements on the lower limb during gait after a stroke. Gait Posture. 2010; 31(1): 109-15.
Kim TY. The effect of changing gait speed and taking low arm weight on latissimus dorsi and gluteus medius and maximus muscle actiity. Department of Physical Therapy, Graduate school, Inje University, korea, 2013.
Vleeming A, Pool-Goudzwaard AL, Stoeckart R, van Wingerden JP, Snijders CJ. The posterior layer of the thoracolumbar fascia. Its function in load transfer from spine to legs. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1995; 20(7): 753-8.
Shin JH, Oh DW. Kim JS. (2010). Effect of nordic walking training on walking function of patients with stroke. Journal of special education & rehabilitation science. 2013; 49(2): 181-194.
Wee JY, Wong H, Palepu A. Validation of the Berg Balance Scale as a predictor of length of stay and discharge destination in stroke rehabilitation. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2003; 84(5): 731-5.
Berg KO, Wood-Dauphinee SL, Williams JI, Maki B. Measuring balance in the elderly: validation of an instrument. Can J Public Health. 1992; 83(2): 7-11.
Deathe AB, Miller WC. The L test of functional mobility: measurement properties of a modified version of the timed "up & go" test designed for people with lower-limb amputations. Phys Ther. 2005; 85(7): 626-35.
Tilson JK, Sullivan KJ, Cen SY, Rose DK, Koradia CH, Azen SP, Duncan PW. Meaningful gait speed improvement during the first 60 days poststroke: minimal clinically important difference. Phys Ther. 2010; 90(2): 196-208.
Liu J, Drutz C, Kumar R, McVicar L, Weinberger R, Brooks D, Salbach NM. Use of the six-minute walk test poststroke: is there a practice effect? Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2008; 89(9): 1686-92.
Perry J. Davids JR. Gait analysis: Normal and Pathological function. Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics. 1992; 12(6): 224-243.
Sigg JA, Ives JC, Gaba BC, Sforzo GA. Effect or arm position on parameters of normal gait in older persons. Clin Kinesio, 1997; 51: 33-36.
Kubo M1, Wagenaar RC, Saltzman E, Holt KG. Biomechanical mechanism for transitions in phase and frequency of arm and leg swing during walking. Biol Cybern. 2004 Aug;91(2): 91-8.
LaFiandra M1, Wagenaar RC, Holt KG, Obusek JP. How do load carriage and walking speed influence trunk coordination and stride parameters? J Biomech. 2003; 36(1): 87-95.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186