Abnormal Weight Among University Students in the Kingdom of Bahrain (2018): Prevalence, Factors, Predictions, and Recommendations
American Journal of Internal Medicine
Volume 6, Issue 6, November 2018, Pages: 152-160
Received: Aug. 23, 2018;
Accepted: Sep. 7, 2018;
Published: Oct. 12, 2018
Views 857 Downloads 192
Nizar Jaoua, Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Prince Mohammad Bin Fahd University, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia
Alexander Woodman, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Prince Mohammad Bin Fahd University & Saudi Commission for Health Specialties, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia
Majeed Amini, Department of Mathematical Sciences, Ahlia University, College of Arts and Science, Manama, the Kingdom of Bahrain
Follow on us
Over the past two decades, the Kingdom of Bahrain has seen an increase in weight in a growing number of people. Experts in the field determined that it is due to a lack of exercise and poor dietary habits. The problem has reached extremely high records of obesity; 37% for females and 30% for males. The statistics were based on a cross-sectional study of 414 volunteers at a local shopping mall. The goal of this primary data analysis was to determine the current prevalence of weight abnormalities. The findings were used to predict the trend of such abnormalities among the sub-population of university students in the Kingdom of Bahrain. The analysis, done in 2018, was based on 1,100 surveys collected from subjects in the central universities in the Kingdom of Bahrain including the University of Bahrain, Ahlia University, University of Bahrain, Arabian Gulf University, Applied Science University, AMM International University, Arab Open University, and Bahrain Polytechnic. The research was conducted over a period of several months. The authors developed surveys in both Arabic and English and randomly selected participants aged between eighteen and twenty-five among full-time students from major universities in the Kingdom of Bahrain. The standards of these weight issues, including obesity, overweight and underweight issues were determined with the use of the International Classification Index, a diagnostic tool used for health management. It is managed and prescribed by the World Health Organization. Based on the Chi-square test, the results strongly depended on the gender, age, and the extent of exercise performed on a weekly basis. As a result, a multinomial logistic regression involving these factors was used to compare the trends and predict the highest and lowest probabilities of each abnormal weight. For example, the male students, aged twenty-two or older who exercise less than one hour a week, were the most likely to be obese and overweight; about 20% and 42% chance, respectively. However, the students most probable to be underweight (about 11%) were those females; aged eighteen or nineteen who exercise less than one hour a week.
BMI, The Kingdom of Bahrain, Multinomial Logistic Regression Model, Obesity, Overweight, Prevalence, Underweight, University Students
To cite this article
Abnormal Weight Among University Students in the Kingdom of Bahrain (2018): Prevalence, Factors, Predictions, and Recommendations, American Journal of Internal Medicine.
Vol. 6, No. 6,
2018, pp. 152-160.
Copyright © 2018 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Sultan Al Noahir. Obesity in Gulf Countries (2014). International Journal of Health and Sciences. 8 (1): 79–83.
World Health Organization. Mean Body Mass Index (2018a). Retrieved from: http://www.who.int/gho/ncd/risk_factors/bmi_text/en/.
World Health Organization. Obesity: Preventing and Managing the Global Epidemic (2000). Report of WHO Consultation. 894 (i-xii): 1-253.
Mattke S., Liu H., Caloyeras J., Huang Ch. Y., Van Busum K. R., Khodyakov D., & Shier V. Workplace Wellness Programs Study (2013). Rand Health Q. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4945172/.
World Health Organization. Noncommunicable Diseases (2018b). Key Facts. Retrieved from: http://www.who.int/en/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/noncommunicable-diseases.
World Health Organization. The Constitution of the World Health Organization (1948). Retrieved from: http://www.who.int/about/mission/en/.
Regional Health Systems Observatory- EMRO (2007). Health System Profile - Bahrain. Retrieved from: http://apps.who.int/medicinedocs/documents/s17291e/s17291e.pdf.
World Health Organization. Obesity; preventing and managing the global epidemic (2007). Report of a WHO Consultation on Obesity.
Goettler A., Grosse A., Sonntag D. Productivity Loss Due to Overweight and Obesity: A Systematic Review of Indirect Costs (2017). BMJ Open, 7, e014632. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2016-014632.
Central Bank of Bahrain. Economic Report (2007). Retrieved from: https://www.cbb.gov.bh/assets/E%20R/Economic%20Report%202007%20ENG.pdf.
World Data Atlas. Bahrain (2015). Retrieved from: https://knoema.com/atlas.
Hubail A., R. & Culligan K. G. Current Prospectus on Obesity in Bahrain and Determination of Percentage Body Fat Range (2012). Bahrain Medical Bulletin 34 (1). Retrieved from: http://www.bahrainmedicalbulletin.com/march_2012/Current_Prospectus_Obesity.pdf.
Sjoberg A., Hallberg L., Hoglund D., Hulthen L. Meal pattern, food choice, nutrient intake and lifestyle factors in the Goteborg Adolescence Study (2003). Eur J ClinNutr; 57: 156978.
Musaiger A. O., Bader Z., Al-Roomi Kh., D'Souza R. Dietary and lifestyle habits amongst adolescents in Bahrain (2011). Food & Nutrition Research. 55:1, 7122, DOI: 10.3402/fnr.v55i0.7122.
Popkin B. M. &Gordon-Larsen P. The nutrition transition: worldwide obesity dynamics and their determinants (2004). International Journal of Obesity 28; S2–S9.
Hruby A. & Frank B. Hu. The Epidemiology of Obesity: A Big Picture (2015). PharmacoEconomics. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4859313/.
Bagherniya M., Taghipour A., Sharma M., Sahebkar A., Contento I., R., Keshavarz S., A. Obesity Intervention Programs among Adolescents Using Social Cognitive Theory: ASystematic Literature Review (2018). HEALTH EDUCATION RESEARCH 33 (1).
Ministry of Health of Bahrain. National Non-Communicable Diseases Risk Factors Survey (2007). Retrieved from:http://www.who.int/ncds/surveillance/steps/2007_STEPS_Survey_Bahrain.pdf.
World Health Organization. Nutrition in Adolescence: Issues and Challenges for the Health Sector: Issues in Adolescent Health and Development (2004). WHO Discussion Paper on Adolescence.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Defining Adult Overweight and Obesity (2016). Retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/obesity/adult/defining.html.
Ministry of Health of Bahrain. Public Health Annual Report (2014). Retrieved from: https://www.moh.gov.bh/Content/Files/Publications/X_635906124344978750.pdf.
Gharib N., Al Amer M., Al – Salehi S. Nutrition Clinics Management and Prevention of Obesity (2012). Ministry of Health Directorate of Public Health Nutrition Section. Retrieved from: https://www.moh.gov.bh/Content/Files/Publications/X_217201413620.pdf.
World Health Organization. Nutrition Clinics Help Tackle Obesity in Bahrain (2014). Retrieved from: http://www.who.int/features/2014/bahrain-tackle-obesity/en/.
The World Fact Book. Bahrain (2016). Retrieved from: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/print_ba.html.
Woodman A., Jaoua N., Thomas J. Childhood Obesity, Its Prevalence and Health Impact on Children and Adolescents in Orange County, California (USA2018). The New Armenian Medical Journal 1 2 (2); 5-13.