The Impact of the Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Process on the Serum Levels of Malonaldialdehyde, Glutathione Peroxidase, and Interlukine-18 in Patients with Essential Hypertension
American Journal of Internal Medicine
Volume 3, Issue 3, May 2015, Pages: 117-126
Received: Mar. 23, 2015; Accepted: Apr. 1, 2015; Published: Apr. 9, 2015
Views 4160      Downloads 188
Salar Fatih Kudhur, Ministry of Health, Psychiatric Hospital, Head of Pharmacy Department, Havalan city, Erbil, Iraq, Kurdish
Shatha Rouf Moustafa, College of Pharmacy, Hawler Medical University, Havalan city, Erbil, Iraq, Arabian
Article Tools
Follow on us
Background and objectives: The oxidative stress, antioxidant status and inflammatory process are cooperative events involved in development and progression of essential hypertension. This study was as a step for elucidating the contribution of the malondialdehyde, glutathione peroxidase, interlukine -18 and lipid profile with the incidence, development, and progression of essential hypertension. Aims: The aims of this study were, to assess the change in serum malondialdehyde, glutathione peroxidase, interlukine-18 and lipid profile levels in patients with essential hypertension, moreover, find out the effect of other confounding factors age, gender and stage of the disease on the serum levels of focused parameters and finally detect the correlation between all interested parameters. Patients and Methods: This study was designed to examine the associations between the serum interested parameters levels with the incidence of essential hypertension in 50 patients of both genders, and for the comparing purpose an equal number of the matched age–gender healthy adults also enrolled in this study as a control group. The hypothesis that oxidant /antioxidant status and inflammatory process influence the risk of adverse clinical outcomes are worthy for investigating. Accordingly, malondialdehyde was measured using coloremetric method, while, glutathione peroxidase and interlukine -18 were measured using enzyme linked immmunosorbent assay and lipid profile was estimated using commercial kit. Results: Patients exhibited a significant elevation in the serum malondialdehyde, glutathione peroxidase, interleukin-18 and lipid profile levels as compared with the control group. Conclusion: The data of the present study indicated that an alteration in oxidant / antioxidant status and inflammatory process in patients with essential hypertension. This investigation provided the first evidence of the ability of malondialdehyde, glutathione peroxidase, interlukine -18 and lipid profile in combination patterns as a factors involved in essential hypertension pathophysiology, etiology and are regarded as a markers of prognostic significance and potential therapeutic targets for future. The demonstration of these parameters provided a new insights into understanding the independence of oxidative stress /antioxidant status and inflammatory pathways in essential hypertension incidence, development and progression.
Essential Hypertension, Malondialdehyde, Glutathione Peroxidase, Interleukine -18
To cite this article
Salar Fatih Kudhur, Shatha Rouf Moustafa, The Impact of the Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Process on the Serum Levels of Malonaldialdehyde, Glutathione Peroxidase, and Interlukine-18 in Patients with Essential Hypertension, American Journal of Internal Medicine. Vol. 3, No. 3, 2015, pp. 117-126. doi: 10.11648/j.ajim.20150303.15
Lifton RP., Gharavi AG., Geller DS. (2001). Molecular mechanisms of human hypertension. Cell, 104: 545- 556.
Johnson R.J., Herrera-Acosta J., Schreiner G.F., Rodriguez-Iturbe B. (2002). Subtle acquired renal injury as a mechanism of salt-sensitive hypertension. N Engl J Med, 346: 913-923.
Kotur-Stevuljevic J., Memon L., Stefanovic A. (2007). Correlation of oxidative stress parameters and inflammatory markers in coronary artery disease patients. Clin Biochem, 40: 181-187.
Soydinç S, Çelik A, Demiryürek S. (2007). The relationship between oxidative stress, nitric oxide, and coronary artery disease. Eur J Gen Med, 4(2): 62- 66.
Ogita H., Liao J. (2004). Endothelial function and oxidative stress. Endothelium, 11: 123- 132.
Paravicini .TM. , Touyz, R.M. (2006). Redox signaling in hypertension. Cardiovasc. Res, 71: 247– 258.
Kędziora-Kornatowska K., Szewczyk-Golec K., Czuczejko J. (2007). Effect of melatonin on the oxidative stress in erythrocytes of healthy young and elderly subjects. J Pineal Res, 42: 153- 158.
Das SK, Sanyal K, Basu A. (2005). Study of urban community survey in India: Growing trend of high prevalence in developing country. Int J Med Sci, 2: 70-78.
Wilcox C.S., Pearlman A. (2008). Chemistry and antihypertensive effects of tempol and other nitroxides. Pharmacol Rev, 60: 418– 469.
Pompella A., Visvikis A., Paolicchi A., De Tata V., Casini A.F. (2003). The changing faces of glutathione, a cellular protagonist. Biochemical Pharmacology, 66(8): 1499–1503.
Engstrom G., Janson L., Berglund G. (2003). Inflammation-sensitive plasma proteins and incidence of myocardial infarction in men with low cardiovascular risk. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol, 23: 2247- 2251.
Pedrinelli R. (2000). Endothelial vasomotor dysfunction in hypertension. J Hum Hypertens, 14: 481- 483.
Bautista LE, Vera L.M., Arenas I.A., Gamarra G. (2005). Independent association between inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein, interleukin- 6, and TNF-alpha) and essential hypertension. J Hum Hypertens, 19: 149- 154.
Nagano M., Nakamura M., Sato K., Tanaka F., Segawa T., Hiramori K. (2005). Association between serum C-reactive protein levels and pulse wave velocity. a population-based cross-sectional study in a general population. Atherosclerosis, 180: 189-195.
Chobanian A.V., Bakris G. L. , Black H. R. (2003). The seventh report of the joint national committee on prevention, detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure: the JNC 7 report. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 289 (19 ): 2560– 2572.
Lee R., Margaritis M., Channon K.M., Antoniades C. (2012). Evaluating oxidative stress in human cardiovascular disease: methodological aspects and considerations. Curr Med Chem, 19(16): 2504– 2520.
Babu Raja Maharjan, Jha J.C., Vishwanath P., Alurkar V.M., Singh P.P. (2008). Oxidant–antioxidant Status and Lipid Profile in the Hypertensive Patients. Journal of Nepal Health Research Council, 6 (2): 63- 68.
Khanna H. D., Sinha M. K., Khanna S., Tandon R. (2008). Oxidative Stress in hypertension: Association with antihypertensive treatment. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol, 52(3): 283– 287.
Seema L., Jaw alekar, Ujjwala J., Kulkarni, Vasant T., Surve and Deshmukh Y. A. (2010). Role of Oxidants and Anti Oxidants in Patients with Cardiovascular Diseases. Asian J. Med. Sci, 2(4): 181- 184.
Kornelia Kędziora-Kornatowska, Jolanta Czuczejko, Jadwiga Motyl, Karolina Szewczyk-Golec, Mariusz Kozakiewicz, Hanna Pawluk, Józef Kędziora, Robert Błaszczak, Maciej Banach,Jacek Rysz (2010). Effects of coenzyme Q10 supplementation on activities of selected antioxidative enzymes and lipid peroxidation in hypertensive patients treated with indapamide. A pilot study.Arch Med Sci, 6(4): 513- 518.
Meera K.S. (2011). Oxidative imbalance in smokers with and without hypertension. Biomedical Research, 22 (3): 267– 272.
Shamil H., Othman, Imad A., Thanoon, (2012). Oxidant / antioxidant status and thyroid function tests in hypertensive patients treated by captopril or valsartan. Ann. Coll. Med. Mosul, 38(2): 62 - 67.
Aquil A., Mohd M.H., Usha S., Najmul I. (2013). Comparative study of marker of oxidative stress among normotensive, pre-hypertensive and hypertensive subjects. Biomedical Research, 24 (4): 493- 497.
Komala PT, Sankar P, Malliga S. (2013). Comparative Study of Antihypertensive Treatment with Enalapril and Atenolol on Oxidative Stress. JPBS, 5(4): 8-11.
Nandeesha H., Sathiyapriya V., Bobby Z., Pavithran P., Agrawal A.,Selvaraj N. (2007). Altered Oxidant-Antioxidant Status in Non-Obese Men with Moderate Essential Hypertension. Indian J Med Sci, 61: 326- 331.
Selvaraj N., Sathiyapriya V., Bobby Z., Nandeesha H., Aparna A. (2013). Elevated glutathione peroxidase in newly diagnosed hypertension: its relation to insulin resistance. Clin Exp Hypertens, 35 (3): 195- 199.
Nambiar S., Viswanathan S., Zachariah B., Hanumanthappa N., Agrawal A. (2013). Elevated Glutathione Peroxidase in Newly Diagnosed Hypertension: Its Relation to Insulin Resistance. Clinical and Experimental Hypertension, 35 (3): 195- 199.
Sathiyapriya V., Nandeesh H., Bobb Z., Selvaraj N., Pavithran P. (2007). Perturbation of oxidant–antioxidant status in non-obese prehypertensive male subjects. Journal of Human Hypertension, 21: 176– 178.
Lu D., Maulik N., Moraru I.I., Kreutzer D.L., Das D.K. (1993). Molecular adaptation of vascular endothelial cells to oxidative stress. Am J Physiol, 264: 715- 722.
Al-Solaiman Y., Jesri A., Zhao Y., Morrow J.D., Egan B.M. (2009). Low-Sodium DASH reduces oxidative stress and improves vascular function in salt-sensitive humans. J Hum Hypertension, 23: 826– 835.
Rybka J. , Kupczyk D. , dziora-Kornatowska K., Ke, Motyl J. , Czuczejko J. , Szewczyk-Golec K. (2011). Glutathione-Related Antioxidant Defense System in Elderly Patients Treated for Hypertension. Cardiovasc Toxicol, 11: 1–9.
Rodrigo R., Gonzalez J., Paoletto F. (2011). The role of oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of hypertension. Hypertens Res, 34: 431- 440.
Evans J. , Collins M., Jennings C., van der Merwe L., Söderström I., Olsson T., Levitt N.S., Lambert E.V., Goedecke J.H. (2007). The association of interleukin-18 genotype and serum levels with metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Eur J Endocrinol. 157(5): 633- 640.
Stefan Blankenberg, Gérald Luc, Pierre Ducimetière, Dominique Arveiler, Jean Ferrières, Philippe Amouyel, Alun Evans, François Cambien , Laurence Tiret, (2003). Interleukin-18 and the Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in European Men. Circulation, 108: 2453- 2459.
Lewington S., Clarke R., Qizilbash N., Peto R., Collins R. (2002). Age specific relevance of usual blood pressure to vascular mortality: a meta-analysis of individual data for one million adults in 61 prospective studies. Lancet, 360: 190321913.
Roberts W.C. (1980). The hypertensive diseases. In Laragh JH, ed. Topics in Hypertension. New York: York Medical Books, 17: 368– 388.
Lüscher T.F., Vanhoutte P.M. (1990). The Endothelium: Modulator of Cardiovascular Function. Boca Raton, Fla: CRC Press Inc, 1–228.
Ross R. (1993). The pathogeneses of atherosclerosis: an update. N Engl J Med, 314: 488– 500.
Soltis E.E. (1987). Effect of age on blood pressure and membrane dependent vascular responses in the rat. Circ Res, 61: 889– 897.
Tassaduqe K., Ali M., Salam A., Latif M. (2004). Hypertension in Relation to Obesity, Smoking, Stress, Family History, Age and Marital Status among Human Population of Multan. Pak J Med Sci, 35: 30– 35.
Levenson J.W., Skerrett P.J., Gaziano J.M. (2002). Reducing the global burden of cardiovascular disease: the role of risk factors. Prev Cardiol, 5: 188- 199.
Gerhard M., Roddy M.A., Creager S.J., Creager M.A. (1996). Aging progressively impairs endothelium-dependent vasodilation in forearm resistance vessels of human. Hypertension, 27: 849– 853.
Taddei S, Ghiadoni L, Virdis A, Versari D, Salvetti A. (2003). Mechanisms of endothelial dysfunction: clinical significance and preventive non-pharmacological therapeutic strategies. Curr Pharm, 9: 2385- 2402.
Looi M., Noor A. A., Yasmin A. M. (2005). Effects of Palmvitee on Status of Superoxide Dismutase and Glutathione Peroxidase in Rat Liver during Aging. Malaysian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 12: 21- 24.
Rybka J., Kupczyk D., Kędziora-Kornatowska K., Pawluk H., Czuczejko J., Szewczyk-Golec K. (2011). Age-related changes in an antioxidant defense system in elderly patients with essential hypertension compared with healthy controls. Redox Rep, 16 ( 2): 71- 77.
Kasapoglu M., Ozben T. (2001). Alterations of antioxidant enzymes and oxidative stress markers in aging. Experimental Gerontology, 36: 209– 220.
Erden-Inal M., Sunal E., Kanbak G. (2002). Age-related changes in the glutathione redox system. Cell Biochemistry and Function, 20: 61– 66.
Quiroga G.B., Perez-Campo R., Lopez Torres M. (1990). Antioxidant defense and peroxidation in liver and brain of aged rats. Biochem. J, 272: 247– 250.
Dogru-Abbasoglu S., Tamer-Toptani S., Ugurnal B., Kocak- Toker N., Aykac-Toker G. , Uysal M. (1997). Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in livers and brains of aged rats. Mech. of Ageing and Dev, 98: 177– 180.
Liu H. , Wang H. , Shenvi S. , Hagen T. M. , Liu R. M. (2004). Glutathione metabolism during aging and in Alzheimer disease. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1019: 346–349.
Rebrin, I. , Sohal R. S. (2008). Pro-oxidant shift in glutathione redox state during aging. Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, 60: 1545– 1552.
Augustyniak A., Skrzydlewska E. (2004). Antioxidative abilities during aging. Postepy Hig Med Dosw, 58: 194- 201.
Frayling T., Rafiq S., Murray, (2007). An interleukin-18 polymorphism is associated with reduced serum concentrations and better physical functioning in older people. J Gerontol ABiol Sci Med Sci, 62: 73- 78.
Pavao M., Cordeiro C., Costa A. (2003). Comparison of whole-blood glutathione peroxidase activity, levels of serum selenium, and lipid peroxidation in subjects from the Fishing and Rural Communities of “Rabo de Peixe” village, San Miguel Island, the Azores’ Archipelago, Portugal. Biol Trace Elem Res, 92: 27-40.
Hiroshi Yamagami, Kazuo Kitagawa, Taku Hoshi, Shigetaka Furukado, Hidetaka Hougaku, Yoji Nagai, Masatsugu Hori, (2005). Associations of Serum IL-18 Levels With Carotid Intima-Media Thickness. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, 25: 1458- 1462.
Das S., Yadav D., Narang R., Das N. (2002). Interrelationship between lipid peroxidation, ascorbic acid and superoxide dismutase in coronary artery disease. Curr Sci, 83(4): 488– 491.
Busserolles J., Mazur A., Gueux E., Rock E., Rayssiguier Y. (2002). Metabolic syndrome in the rat: Females are protected against the pro-oxidant effect of a high sucrose diet. Exp Biol Med, 227: 837- 842.
Halliwell B., Gutteridge J.M.C. (2008). Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine, 4th ed. Oxford, Oxford University Press.
Proteggente A. R., England T. G. , Rehman A., Rice-Evans C. A. , Halliwell B. (2002). Gender differences in steady-state levels of oxidative damage to DNA in healthy individuals. Free Radic. Res, 36: 157– 162.
Sastre J. , Borras C. , Garcia-Sala D. , Lloret A. , Pallardo F. V. , Vina J. (2002). Mitochondrial damage in aging and apoptosis. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci, 959: 448– 451.
Borras C. , Sastre J. , Garcia-Sala D. , Lloret A. , Pallardo F. V. , Vina J. (2003). Mitochondria from females exhibit higher antioxidant geneexpression and lower oxidative damage than males. Free Radic. Biol. Med, 34: 546– 552.
Bolzan A.D., Bianchi M.S., Bianchi N.O. (1997). Superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities in human blood: influence of sex, age and cigarette smoking. Clin Chem, 30: 449- 454.
Simic D.V., Mimic-Oka J., Pljesa-Ercegovac M. (2006). Byproducts of oxidative protein damage and antioxidant enzyme activities in plasma of patients with different degrees of essential hypertension. J Hum Hypertens, 20: 149– 155.
Kedziora-Kornatowska K. , Czuczejko J., Pawluk H., Kornatowski T., Motyl J., Szadujkis-Szadurski L., Szewczyk-Golec K., Kedziora J. (2004). The markers of oxidative stress and activity of the antioxidant system in the blood of elderly patients with essential arterial hypertension. Cell Mol Biol Lett, 9: 635- 641.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186