Magnitude and Factors Associated with Malnutrition in Children 6-59 Months of Age in Pastoral Community of Dollo Ado District, Somali Region, Ethiopia
Science Journal of Public Health
Volume 1, Issue 4, September 2013, Pages: 175-183
Received: Aug. 7, 2013;
Published: Aug. 30, 2013
Views 6632 Downloads 1005
Solomon Demissie, School of Public Health, College of Health Sciences, Haramaya University, Harar, Ethiopia
Amare Worku, Addis Continental Institute of Public Health (ACIPH), Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Background: Malnutrition at the early stages of life can lower child resistance to infections, increase child morbidity and mortality, and decrease mental development and cognitive achievement. Adequate nutrition is the keystone of survival, health and development not only of current generations but also of the ones to come. Child malnutrition is a major public health problem in Ethiopia. Objectives: To assess the magnitude and factors associated with malnutrition of children 6 to 59 months of age in Dollo Ado district, Somali region. Methods: A community based, cross-sectional study was conducted on 541 mother-child pairs of 6-59 month old children in December 2012. Anthropometric measurements of height and weight of 541 study children were taken with physical examination to identify the severe form of malnutrition and the socio-demographic characteristics of the subjects were collected using a questionnaire. Both anthropometric and non anthropometric data were entered using Epi-Info version 3.5.2. The data were analyzed using SPSS Version 16.0. Both bivariate and multivariate analysis (logistic regression model) was used to identify the determinants of child malnutrition. Results: Result of the study revealed that the overall prevalence of malnutrition in the community was high with 42.3% of the children being wasted, 34.4% for stunting and 47.7% for underweight. All three forms of malnutrition (wasting, stunting and underweight) was more prevalent among boys than girls with a statistically significant of P<0.031. Prevalence of wasting was higher among young children while stunting and underweight were more likely to be observed in older children. Regression analysis shows that the significant determinants of malnutrition were gender and age of child, marital status, maternal education, monthly HH income, decision making, having of livestock, presence of ARI, total number of children ever born, health status during pregnancy, pre-lactation practice, mode of feeding, access to clean water and type of floor in the households. Conclusions: The prevalence of child malnutrition among the under five children was high, indicating that the nutrition situation in study area is very critical. Thus, malnutrition is a major public health problem. Further in-depth studies should also be encouraged to look for improved interventions.
Magnitude and Factors Associated with Malnutrition in Children 6-59 Months of Age in Pastoral Community of Dollo Ado District, Somali Region, Ethiopia, Science Journal of Public Health.
Vol. 1, No. 4,
2013, pp. 175-183.
Olaf M. and Michael K. Malnutrition and health in developing countries: Canadian medical Association Journal, August 2, 2005; 173 (3)
World Health Organization. Nutrition for health and development, protection of the human environment: Geneva.2005.
Mercedes de Onis, Edward A. Frongillo, & Monika Blossner. Is malnutrition declining? An analysis of changes in levels of child malnutrition since 1980; Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 2000, 78 (10)
Melaku Umeta, Clive E. West, Hans Verhoef, Jemal Haidar and Joseph G.A.J. Hautvast: Factors Associated with Stunting in Infants Aged 5–11 Months in the Dodota-Sire District, Rural Ethiopia; American Society for Nutritional Sciences, Jornal of Nutrition, 31 December 2002
Central Statistical Authority. Demographic and Health Survey 2011; Addis Ababa, Ethiopia and ICF International Calverton, Maryland. USA. March 2012.
A life free from hunger: ‘’Tackling Child Malnutrition," report by Save the children International, Geneva. Feb, 2012.
Leonor Rodriguez, Elsa Cervantes and Rocio Ortiz. Malnutrition and Gastrointestinal and Respiratory Infections in Children: A Public Health Problem; Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8, 1174-1205.
World Health Organization. Communicable disease and severe food shortage technical Note: WHO, Geneva. October 2010.
Ingunn MS, Thorkild T, Henry W, Charles K, and James KT. Determinants of infant growth in Eastern Uganda: a community-based cross-sectional study: BMC Public Health 2008, 8:418
Lisa C. Smith and Lawrence Haddad; Overcoming Child Malnutrition in developing Countries: Past Achievements and Future Choices; February 28, 2000
FMOH. Program Implementation Manual of National Nutrition Program (NNP) I; 2008, A.A, Ethiopia.
Gugsa Yimer. Malnutrition among children in Southern Ethiopia: Levels and risk factors .Ethiop. J. Health Dev. 2000;14(3):283-292
Zewditu Getahun, Kelbessa Urga, Timotewos Ganebo, Ayele Nigatu. Review of the status of malnutrition and trends in Ethiopia. Ethiop. J. Health Dev. 2001
Solomon Amsalu, Zemene Tigabu. Risk factors for severe acute malnutrition in children under the age of five: A case-control study. Ethiop.J.Health Dev 2008;22
Uwem FE, Akin MO and Morenike AD. Prevalence of malnutrition among settled pastoral Fulani children in Southwest Nigeria :BMC Research Notes 2008, 1:7
Henry W, Anne NA, Stefan P, James KT and Thorkild T. Boys are more stunted than girls in Sub-Saharan Africa: meta-analysis of 16 demographic and health surveys; BMC Pediatrics 2007, 7:17
Raphael OB, Funke IO, Segun BF, Foluke ES. Prevalence and Determinants of Malnutrition among Under-five Children of Farming Households in Kwara State, Nigeria: Canadian Center of Science and Education, Journal of Agricultural Science.2011; 3(3).
Luc Christiaenoen, Harold Alderman. Child malnutrition in Ethiopia; Can maternal knowledge augment the role of income: Africa Region Working Paper Series No. 22, Oct.2001
Ingunn M ,Stadskleiv E, Thorkild T, Henry W, Charles K, and James KT. Determinants of infant growth in Eastern Uganda: a community-based cross-sectional study: BMC Public Health 2008, 8:418
Mahgoub S, Nnyepi M, Bandeke T. Factors Affecting Prevalence of Malnutrition Among Children Under Three Years of Age in Botswana. African Journal of Food Agriculture Nutrition and Development (AJFAND); Volume 6, 2006.
Beka T, Wambui K., Zewditu G., & Girum T.: Magnitude and determinants of stunting in children under five years of age in food surplus region of West Gojam, Ethiopia, Ethiop. J. Health Dev. 2009;23(2)
Girmay M, Charlotte H, Michael D, Atalay A, Fikru T, Bogale W, Mark T, Martin P: Prevalence and predictors of under nutrition among infants aged six and twelve months in Butajira, Ethiopia: BMC Public Health. 2010;10:27
Bobby J, Aaron R, Poonam K, and Vimal DR. Prevalence of Malnutrition in Rural Karnataka, South India: A Comparison of Anthropometric Indicators. J Health Population NUTR.2002; 20(3): 239-244.
Alemu M, Nicola J, and Bekele T. Tackling child malnutrition in Ethiopia: Young lives project working paper No 19; Save the Children UK.2005.
Melkie Edris. Assessment of Nutritional Status of Preschool Children of Gumbrit, North West Ethiopia: Ethiop.J.Health Dev. 2007; 21(2):125-129.