Science Journal of Public Health
Volume 4, Issue 4, July 2016, Pages: 297-304
Received: May 16, 2016;
Accepted: Jun. 6, 2016;
Published: Jun. 23, 2016
Views 4904 Downloads 260
Abdissa Aga, School of Public Health, College of Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia
Walelegn Worku, Addis Continental Institute of Public Health (ACIPH), Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Globally, an estimated 2.5 billion people lack access to improved sanitation which is more than 35% of the world’s population and about 1billion people, 15% of the world population do not have access to any kind of sanitation facility and exercise open defecation. A total of 16% of population living in urban Ethiopia do not have access to any kind of sanitation facility and exercise open defecation, of which the huge proportion lives in the slum areas. Objectives: To assess the level of practice and associated factors towards sanitation in the urban slum communities of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods: A community based cross-sectional study design was conducted on January 2015 in Addis Ketema, Lideta, Kirkos, and Gulelle sub cities of Addis Ababa. Using stratified sampling 636 sample households was selected and data was collected from 624 household, which is 98.1% of estimated sample size. Results: Practice of sanitation was 43.89% and it gets higher in households found in Lideta [AOR=3.37, 95% CI=1.12-10.15, p<0.031], Kirkos [AOR= 4.97, 95% CI=1.76-14.04, p<0.002], and Gullele [AOR= 10.16, 95% CI=3.61-28.58, p<0.000] sub cities; and who own previous latrines [AOR= 6.26, 95% CI=3.01-13.01, p<0.000]. It gets lower in households who share latrine with other neighboring households [AOR= 0.08, 95% CI=0.03-0.17, p<0.000], those who own simple pit latrines [AOR= 0.02, 95% CI=0.05-0.74, p<0.016], those who didn’t receive support during the construction of their latrine, [AOR=0.004, 95% CI=0.001– 0.014, p<0.000], and those whose annual income is between 55,001 ETB and 65,000 ETB [AOR=0.15, 95% CI= 0.02– 0.88, p<0.036]. The level of practice of sanitation in the study population is low. Latrine sharing habit, not hiring sanitation facility builder/ skilled mason, and need for subsidy and support during latrine construction were found to be the main factors contributing for this low practice. Establishing well organized and responsible body at each level of administration that will incept and execute awareness and promotion activities to improve the practice of sanitation should be done using different promotion approaches.
Sanitation Practice of Slum Communities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, Science Journal of Public Health.
Vol. 4, No. 4,
2016, pp. 297-304.
UNICEF W. Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) for Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation 2008 update. 2008.
WHO U. Joint Monitoring Programme: Progress on Sanitation and Drinking Water 2013.
Neil Buddy Shah SS, Andrew Fraker, Paul Wang, Esther Wang. Understanding Willingness to Pay for Sanitary Latrines in Rural Cambodia: Findings from Four Field Experiments of iDE Cambodia’s Sanitation Marketing Program. October 2013.
Central Statistical Agency II. Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey. March 2012.
Richard Gelting,* Katherine Bliss, Molly Patrick, Gabriella Lockhart, and Thomas Handzel. Water, Sanitation and Hygiene in Haiti: Past, Present, and Future. The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 2013.
USAID, UNC, Water SHED, LIEN AID, World Toilet Organization. WASH Marketing ProjectKampong Speu Baseline Survey, Final Report. February 2010
Michael Roberts and Anthea Long. Demand Assessmentfor Sanitary Latrinesin Rural and Urban Areasof Cambodia. International Development Enterprises. March 2007.
Michael Roberts, Aaron Tanner a, McNaughton A. Supply Chain Assessment for Sanitary Latrines in Rural and Peri-Urban Areas of Cambodia. August 2007.
WSP. Sustainability and equity aspects of total sanitation programmes. 2010.
Christine Sijbesma CD, Catarina Fonseca, Christelle Pezon. IRC Symposium: Sanitation for the Urban Poor Partnership and Governance. Delft, The Netherlands: November 2008.
Amaka Obika MJ, Valerie Curtis, Guy Howard T. Social Marketing For Urban Sanitation. October 2002.
Sophie Trémolet PK, and Eddy Perez. Financing On-Site Sanitation for the Poor A Six Country Comparative Review and Analysis. January 2010.
Andy Haines NB, Sandy Cairncross, Michael Davies, Katie Greenland AH, Steve Lindsay, Tom Lindsay DS, and Paul Wilkinson. Promoting Housing.pdf. 2012.
Organization WH. UN-Water Global Annual Assessment of Sanitation and Drinking-Water (GLAAS). 2010.
Program WaS, Bank TW. Water Supply and Sanitation in Sierra Leone: Turning Finance into Services for 2015 and Beyond
Program WaS, Bank TW. Water Supply and Sanitation in Niger Turning Finance into Services for 2015 and Beyond.
Program WaS, Bank TW. Water Supply and Sanitation in Mozambique: Turning Finance into Services for 2015 and Beyond.
Program WaS, Bank TW. Water Supply and Sanitation in Central Africa Republic: Turning Finance into Services for 2015 and Beyond.
Program WaS, Bank TW. Water Supply and Sanitation in Angola Turning Finance into Services for 2015 and Beyond.
Bank TW. Sanitation and hygiene: why they matter. (http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/TOPICS/EXTWAT/EXTTOPSANHYG/0,contentMDK:21226306~menuPK:3747741~pagePK:64168445~piPK:64168309~theSitePK:1923181~isCURL:Y,00.html).
Padilla D. The Effectiveness Of Water, Hygiene, and Sanitation Interventions In Lowering Diarrheal Morbidity Across The Globe: A Systematic Review and Qualitative Analysis of Relevant Primary Literature. April 30, 2012.
Annette Pr€uss-Ust€un JB, Thomas Clasen, John M. Colford Jr, Oliver Cumming, Valerie Curtis, Sophie Bonjour, Alan D. Dangour, Jennifer De France, Lorna Fewtrell, Matthew C. Freeman, Bruce Gordon, Paul R. Hunter, Richard B. Johnston, Colin Mathers, Daniel M€ausezahl, Kate Medlicott, Maria Neira, Meredith Stocks, Jennyfer Wolf and Sandy Cairncross. Burden of disease from inadequate water, sanitation and hygiene in low- and middle-income settings: a retrospective analysis of data from 145 countries. August 2014.
Sylvester J. Schieber C, Dana K. Bilyeu DRH, Marsha Rose Katz, Barbara B. Kennelly, Mark J. Warshawsky. The Unsustainable Cost of Health Care. September 2009.
Morella SGBaE. Africa’s Water and Sanitation Infrastructure Access, Affordability, and Alternatives. The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development The World Bank 2011.
USAID WS, UNC. WASH Marketing Project Kampong Speu Baseline Survey. February 2010.
Mr Guy Hutton P. Global costs and benefits of drinking-water supply and sanitation interventions to reach the MDG target and universal coverage. 2012.
Company TN. Understanding Sanitation Habits A Qualitative Study in East Java Indonesia (Probolinggo & Pacitan). March 26, 2008.
Organization. WH. 10 facts on sanitation. 2012.
AMCOW W, UNICEF, WaterAid and CREPA. Sanitation and Hygiene in Africa at a Glance A Synthesis Of Country Priority Actions. July 2011.
Frias J. Opportunities to Improve Sanitation: Situation Assessment of Sanitation in Rural East Java, Indonesia. April 2008.
Pacific (WSP-EAP) WaSPEAat. Selling Sanitation in Vietnam. January 2002.
Region WaSP-EAatPW-EWB-EAatP. Economic impacts of Sanitation in Southeast Asia. November 2007.
Energy FDRoEMoWa. Urban Sanitation Universal Access Plan. December 2011.
(ODI) WaSftUPWatODI. Progress Linked Finance: a study of the feasibility and practicality of a proposed WASH financing approach. November 2011.
Program WaS, Bank TW. Water Supply and Sanitation in Ethiopia: Turning Finance into Services for 2015 and Beyond.
Ashish Joshi SP, Jyoti B Kasav, Mehak Segan, and Awnish K Singh. Water and Sanitation Hygiene Knowledge Attitude Practice in Urban Slum Settings. September 29, 2013.
(WSP-EAP) WaSPEAatP. Selling Sanitation in Vietnam What Works? January 2002.
WSP JDaCK. Introductory Guide to Sanitation Marketing. September 2011.
WSP U, Water Aid, CREPA. Sanitation and Hygiene in Africa at a Glance, A synthesis of country priority actions. 2011.
Eduardo Perez with Jason Cardosi YC, Jacqueline Devine, Amy Grossman, Craig Kullmann, C. Ajith Kumar, Nilanjana Mukherjee, Manu Prakash, Amin Robiarto, Deviariandy Setiawan, Upneet Singh, and Djoko Wartono: WSP. What Does It Take to Scale Up Rural Sanitation? July 2012.
Al EPe. Progress Report: July 1, 2009–June 30, 2010; http://www-wds.worldbank.org. 2011.
Habitat U. The challenge of slums: global report on human settlements 2003. Chapter 1: development context and the millennium agenda. revised and updated version. 2010.