Impact of a Nationwide Measles Immunization Campaign and Routine Immunization in Nigeria, 2006-2010: A Critical Review of South-South, Nigeria
Science Journal of Public Health
Volume 3, Issue 5, September 2015, Pages: 693-698
Received: May 21, 2015; Accepted: Jun. 16, 2015; Published: Jul. 31, 2015
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Authors
Bassey Enya Bassey, World Health Organisation off Yakubu Gowon Crescent Asokoro, Abuja, Nigeria
Alex Gasasira, World Health Organisation off Yakubu Gowon Crescent Asokoro, Abuja, Nigeria
Goitom Weldegbriel, World Health Organisation off Yakubu Gowon Crescent Asokoro, Abuja, Nigeria
Maleghemi Toritseju Sylvester, World Health Organisation off Yakubu Gowon Crescent Asokoro, Abuja, Nigeria
Koko I. Richard, World Health Organisation off Yakubu Gowon Crescent Asokoro, Abuja, Nigeria
Igbu Thompson, World Health Organisation off Yakubu Gowon Crescent Asokoro, Abuja, Nigeria
Ayodele Benjamin, World Health Organisation off Yakubu Gowon Crescent Asokoro, Abuja, Nigeria
Sylvester Agwai, World Health Organisation off Yakubu Gowon Crescent Asokoro, Abuja, Nigeria
Godwin Ubong Akpan, World Health Organisation off Yakubu Gowon Crescent Asokoro, Abuja, Nigeria
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Abstract
Background: Measles remains a serious problem of infancy and childhood in the developing world, despite the availability of vaccine. Increasing urbanization is changing patterns of endemicity. Objective: This paper critically examines the epidemiological impact of this nationwide measles immunization campaign and routine immunization, while taking into account any changes in surveillance performance. Methods: Blood samples were obtained from 4159 client at the surveillance focal sites scattered across the 123 district (LGAs) and were tested for measles specific immunoglobulin M (IgM). Five (5) ml of blood was collected from each subject into plain sterile bottle following informed consent. Blood samples were centrifuged and sera were separated and stored at -20oC until used. Samples were analyzed in batches for measles specific IgM using commercial ELISA (MV-ELISA) (Enzygnost; Behring Diagnostics, Marburg, Germany) in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. Tests were read on a pre-programmed spectrophotometer Quantum II, wavelength 450/630nm, manufactured by Abbott. Results: In total, 465 (11.2%) tested positive for measles specific IgM antibodies. Of these, 1962 were male and 2197 were female. The highest number of IgM positive cases was found in those less than 5 years (79.8%), while those aged 5-15 years, and 15 years and above recorded 17.2% and 3.0% respectively. The distribution of measles burden between urban and rural setting indicates that urban dwellers 53.8% were more susceptible to measles than rural dwellers (46.2%), this relationship was established as statistically significant with (p< 0.0001) and odds ratio was also high 1.669 (95% CI 1.375-2.025). A high significance of association between development of measles and vaccination status of subjects is also observed in this study (p < 0.0001), while odds ratio was also observed to be high 6.144 (95% CI 4.977-7.511). Conclusions: Improved understanding of measles epidemiology and risk factors are prerequisites for effective control. Possible strategies should include vertical vaccination efforts in addition to routine programmes.
Keywords
Measles, Immunization, Seasonal Variation
To cite this article
Bassey Enya Bassey, Alex Gasasira, Goitom Weldegbriel, Maleghemi Toritseju Sylvester, Koko I. Richard, Igbu Thompson, Ayodele Benjamin, Sylvester Agwai, Godwin Ubong Akpan, Impact of a Nationwide Measles Immunization Campaign and Routine Immunization in Nigeria, 2006-2010: A Critical Review of South-South, Nigeria, Science Journal of Public Health. Vol. 3, No. 5, 2015, pp. 693-698. doi: 10.11648/j.sjph.20150305.25
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