NNT Elimination and the Nigeria’s Health System: Where is the Missing Link
Science Journal of Public Health
Volume 3, Issue 3, May 2015, Pages: 417-422
Received: May 5, 2015; Accepted: May 9, 2015; Published: May 19, 2015
Views 4210      Downloads 143
Jalal-Eddeen Abubakar Saleh, World Health Organization, Bauchi Zonal Office, Bauchi State, Nigeria
Haruna Ismaila Adamu, World Health Organization, Bauchi Zonal Office, Bauchi State, Nigeria
Adamu Ibrahim Ningi, World Health Organization, Bauchi Zonal Office, Bauchi State, Nigeria
Article Tools
Follow on us
In 1994 when the global neonatal tetanus (NNT) elimination campaign started gaining momentum, there were 104 out of the 161 developing countries that achieved the NNT elimination in 2000 with 24 other countries close to achieving. Nigeria is among the remaining countries that are yet to achieve the global NNT elimination target as set by the WHO. Although Nigeria plays a strategic role on the African continent, the government has failed to uphold the goals of the universal basic primary health care; this made the healthcare system operating below the minimum expected standard. The problems are more pronounced in the public health sector where there is a lack of timely information to combat infectious and communicable diseases, inadequate tracking of disease outbreaks to adequately treat and preventive further spread, poor surveillance and infectious disease tracking procedures; the adverse of all these would be health insecurity potentially endangering our security as a nation.
Neonatal Mortality, Neonatal Tetanus, Surveillance System, Vaccine Stock-Out, Health System
To cite this article
Jalal-Eddeen Abubakar Saleh, Haruna Ismaila Adamu, Adamu Ibrahim Ningi, NNT Elimination and the Nigeria’s Health System: Where is the Missing Link, Science Journal of Public Health. Vol. 3, No. 3, 2015, pp. 417-422. doi: 10.11648/j.sjph.20150303.28
UNICEF U.S. Fund (2015). MNT Endemic Countries: Countries in Which MNT Remains a Public Health Threat. Retrieved from http://www.unicefusa.org/mission/survival/immunization/tetanus/endemic-countries
UNICEF, WHO, UNFPA (2000). Maternal and neonatal tetanus elimination by 2005. Strategies for achieving and maintaining elimination. Retrieved from http://www.unicef.org/health/files/MNTE%5Fstrategy%5Fpaper.pdf
WHO (2014). Maternal and Neonatal Tetanus (MNT) elimination: The initiative and challenges. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/immunization/diseases/MNTE_initiative/en/
WHO (2004). ‘‘The Global Burden of Disease 2004 Update’’ Retrieved from http://www.who.int/healthinfo/global_burden_disease/2004_report_update/en/index.html
Roper, M. H., Vandelaer, J. H., & Gasse, F. L. (2007). Maternal and neonatal tetanus. Lancet, 370, 1947–59.
CDC (2012). Tetanus: Epidemiology and prevention of vaccine-preventable diseases. From the “The Pink Book: Course Textbook - 12th Edition Second Printing.” Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/pinkbook/tetanus.html
UNICEF (2014). Elimination of maternal and neonatal tetanus. Retrieved from http://www.unicef.org/health/index_43509.html
Blencowe, H., Lawn, J., Vandelaer, J., Roper, M., & Cousens, S. (2010). Tetanus toxoid immunization to reduce mortality from neonatal tetanus. Int J of Epidemiology, 39, i102–i109. doi:10.1093/ije/dyq027
Afshar, M., Raju, M., Ansell, D., & Bleck, T. P. (2011). Narrative review: tetanus-a health threat after natural disasters in developing countries. Ann Internal Medicine, 154, 329-35; PMID:21357910.
Zafar, F., Rasheed, J., & Abdulghaffar, H. (2012). Neonatal Tetanus. Professional Med Journal, 19(6), 773-781. Retrieved from http://www.theprofesional.com/article/vol-19-no-06/prof-1962.pdf
Sani, M. N., Galadima, M., Ameh, J. B., Kawo, A. H. & Kurawa, S. M. (2010). Serological evaluation of protective immunity against tetanus in pregnant women attending some rural hospitals in Kano, northern Nigeria. Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 3(1), 39-42. Retrieved from http://ecc.isc.gov.ir/ShwFArticle.aspx?aid=594864
Khan, A. A., Zahidie, A., & Rabbani, F. (2013). Interventions to reduce neonatal mortality from neonatal tetanus in low and middle-income countries - a systematic review.
BMC Public Health, 13,322. Retrieved from http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2458/13/322
Alhaji, M. A., Bello, M. A., Elechi, H. A., Akuhwa, R. T., Bukar, F. L., & Ibrahim, H. A. (2013). A review of neonatal tetanus in University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, northeastern Nigeria. Niger Med J, 54(6): 398–401. doi: 10.4103/0300-1652.126294
Ambe, J. P., Bello, M., Yahya, S. J., & Omotara, B. A. (2009). Umbilical cord care practices in Konduga local government area of Borno State, northeastern Nigeria. The Internet J Tropical Medicine, 5. ISSN 1540‑2681
Abhulimhen-Ihoha, B.I., Ofili, A., & Ibadin, M.O. (2011). Cord care practices among mothers attending immunization clinic at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City. Niger J Paediatrics, 38, 104–8. doi.org/10.4314/njp.v38i3.72262
Abdulkarim, A.A., Ibrahim, R.M., Fawi, A.O., Adebayo, O.A., & Johnson, B.R. (2011). Vaccines and immunization: The past, present and future in Nigeria. Niger J
Paediatrics, 38, 186–94. doi.org/10.4314/njp.v38i4.72382
American Pregnancy Association (2011). Umbilical cord care. Retrieved from http://americanpregnancy.org/firstyearoflife/umbilicalcord.htm
MDG (2013). MDGs in Nigeria - Current Progress. Retrieved from http://www.ng.undp.org/mdgsngprogress.shtml
WHO (2007). Weekly Epidemiological Record. No. 46(81) 433–444 Retrieved from http://www.who.int/wer
The MDG Report (2012). We can end poverty 2015. UN Publication, New York. Retrieved from http://www.endpoverty2015.org/en/category/millennium-development-goals/
Ogunlesi, T. A. (2011). Vaccines for women to prevent neonatal tetanus: RHL commentary. The WHO Reproductive Health Library; Geneva: World Health Organization. Retrieved from http://apps.who.int/rhl/newborn/cd002959_Ogunlesit_com/en/
Akani, N. A., Nte, A. R., & Oruamabo, R. S. (2004). Neonatal tetanus in Nigeria: One social scourge too many! Nig J of Paediatrics, 3, 1-9. Retrieved from http://www.ajol.info/index.php/njp/article/viewFile/12080/15198
National Population Commission (NPC) [Nigeria] and ICF Macro. 2009. Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey 2008. Abuja, Nigeria: National Population Commission and ICF Macro. Retrieved from http://nigeria.unfpa.org/pdf/nigeriadhs2008.pdf
Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (2008): North East. UNICEF 2009 Publication. Retrieved from http://www.unicef.org/nigeria/ng_publications_North_East_zonal_fact_sheet_(English).pdf
Central Intelligence Agency (2014). The World Fact book: Country Comparison. Retrieved from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ni.html
Ploch, L. (2007). CRS report for Congress on Nigeria's current issues. 5-13.
Osain, M. W. (2011). The Nigerian health care system: Need for integrating adequate medical intelligence and surveillance systems. J Pharm Bioallied Sciences, 3(4), 470–478. doi:10.4103/0975-7406.90100
WHO (2005). Expanded Program on Immunization in the African Region: Strategic plan of action 2001-2005. Retrieved from http://www.afro.who.int/index.php?option=com_docman&task=doc_download&gid=6538
Awosika, A. (2000). Boosting routine immunization in Nigeria: issues and proposed action points. Retrieved from http://www.afro.who.int.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/ddc/vpd/2000tfi:/
Fetuga, M., Ogunlesi, T., Adekanmbi, A., Runsewe-Abiodun, T., & Ogunfowora, O. (2009). Neonatal tetanus in Sagamu, Nigeria during the Expanded Programme on Immunization and the national programme on immunization eras: a comparative analysis. The Internet Journal of Pediatrics and Neonatology, 12(1). Retrieved from https://ispub.com/IJPN/11/2/5040
WHO (n.d.). Global Alert and Response: Recommended Surveillance Standards (2nd ed.). WHO/CDS/CSR/ISR/99.2 Retrieved from http://www.who.int/csr/resources/publications/surveillance/whocdscsrisr992.pdf
Ide, L. Y., & Nte, A. R. (2009). Neonatal tetanus: a continuing menace. The Nigerian Health Journal, 9, 1(4). Retrieved from www.ajol.info/index.php/nhj/article/download/90818/80246
Oyedeji, O. A., Fadero, F., Joel-Medewase, V., Elemile, P., & Oyedeji, G. A. (2012). Trends in neonatal and post-neonatal tetanus admissions at a Nigerian teaching hospital. J Infect Dev Countries. 6(12), 847-853. Retrieved from http://www.jidc.org/index.php/journal/article/viewFile/23276738/802
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186