The Prevalence of Early Childhood Caries (ECC) and its Associated Risk Factors Among Immigrant Tibetan Pre-School Children in Bylakuppe, Mysore, India
Science Journal of Public Health
Volume 3, Issue 3, May 2015, Pages: 384-390
Received: Apr. 20, 2015;
Accepted: Apr. 27, 2015;
Published: May 9, 2015
Views 4727 Downloads 197
Madhusudan Kushalappa. Kaikure, Dept.of pedodontics and preventive dentistry, A J Institute of dental sciences, Mangaluru, India
Ann Thomas, Dept.of pedodontics and preventive dentistry, A J Institute of dental sciences, Mangaluru, India
Sowmya B. Shetty, Dept.of pedodontics and preventive dentistry, A J Institute of dental sciences, Mangaluru, India
Tony Jose, Dept.of pedodontics and preventive dentistry, Indira Gandhi dental college, Cochin, India
Raghavendra Pidamale, Dept.of pedodontics and preventive dentistry, A J Institute of dental sciences, Mangaluru, India
Savitha Lakshmi Kaikure, Dept. of oral and maxillofacial pathology, A J Institute of dental sciences, Mangaluru, India
Objectives: This study estimated the prevalence of early childhood caries (ECC) and related risk factors in a population of immigrant Tibetan pre-school children in Bylakuppe of Mysore District; India. Methodology: A cross sectional study was conducted in 500 pre-school children between 10 to 72 months of age in and around Bylakuppe of Mysore district; India; using II stage stratified random sampling. The caries experience was recorded using defs and the deft index. Information regarding risk factors for caries was obtained through a structured questionnaire given to mothers/caretakers. Statistical data analysis: The data was statistically analyzed by using “chi-square” test and “ANOVA” test. Results: The prevalence of ECC in the study sample was significantly high. It was 92.2% with the mean defs score of 10.27 and the mean deft score of 6.15 (p<0.001vhs).Higher prevalence of ECC was found, in children with bottle feeding, addition of sugar to bottle content and to regular food, in-between meal snacking habits and increase intake of sweets like chocolate, candies and toffees, lesser frequency of brushing and child brushing unassisted/unsupervised. Reports of regular visits to the dentist were almost absent in the study population. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the high prevalence of ECC in the study population. Development of strategies and protocols; to prevent and manage ECC, based on the risk factors identified for these population, is essential to curb this oral health problem.
Madhusudan Kushalappa. Kaikure,
Sowmya B. Shetty,
Savitha Lakshmi Kaikure,
The Prevalence of Early Childhood Caries (ECC) and its Associated Risk Factors Among Immigrant Tibetan Pre-School Children in Bylakuppe, Mysore, India, Science Journal of Public Health.
Vol. 3, No. 3,
2015, pp. 384-390.
American academy of pediatric dentistry (AAPD): policy on early childhood caries: unique challenges and treatment options (2003): Pediatrc Dent special issue 24(7),24-25.
Cariono, KM., Shinada, K. and Kawaguchi, Y. (2003): Early childhood caries in northern Philippines. Community Dent Oral Epidemiology31, 81-89.
Chan, SCL., Tsai, JSJ. and King, NM. (2002): Feeding and oral hygiene of preschool children in Hong Kong and their caregivers’ dental knowledge and attitudes. Int J. of Paediatric Dentistry12, 322-331.
Clemencia, M., Vargas, CM., Manajemy, N., Pooja, K. and Tinanoff, N. (2000): Oral health status of preschool children attending head start in Maryland. Pediatric Dentistry24(3),257–263.
Cunnigham, SED., Farokhi, M., Baez, M. and Cano, S. (2008): Prevalence of early childhood caries in young Mexican American children. IADR 86th General session and exhibition 3rd July 2008, Caries research – epidemiology.
Dominguez, RV., Astasio, AP. andOrtega, MP. (1993): Analysis of several risk factors involved in dental caries through multiple logistic regressions. Int Dent J43, 149-156.
Ekman, A., Holm, AK., Schelin, B. and Gustafson, L. (1981): Dental health and parental attitudes in Finnish immigrant preschool children in the north of Sweden. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol9(5),224-229.
Filstrup, SL., Briskie, D., Da-Fonseca, M., Lawrence, L., Wandera, A. and Inglehart, MR. (2003): Early childhood caries and quality of life: child and parent perspectives. Pediatr Dent 25, 431-440.
Jin, BH., Ma, DS., Moon, HS., Paik, DMI., Hahn, SH. And Horowitz, AM. (2003): ECC prevalence and risk factors in Seoul, Korea. American Assoc Pub Health Dentistry23, 183-188.
Jose, B. and King, NM. (2003): Early childhood caries lesions in preschool children in Kerala, India. Pediatr Dent 25(6),594-600.
Kaste, LM.,Marianos, D., Chang, R. and Phipps, KR. (1992): The assessment of nursing caries and its relationship to high caries in the permanent dentition. J Public Health Dent 52, 64-68.
Kuriakose, S. and Joseph, E. (1999): Caries prevalence and its relation to socioeconomic status and oral hygiene practices in 600 pre-school children of Kerala-India. J Int Soc Prev Ped Dentistry17(3), 97-100.
Laws, MB. (2001): Race and ethnicity in biomedical and health services research. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine155, 972-974.
Li, Y. and Wang, W. (2002): Predicting caries in permanent teeth from caries in primary teeth: an eight-year cohort study. J Dent Res81, 561-566.
Low, W., Tan, S. and Schwartz, S. (1999): The effect of severe caries on the quality of life in young children. Pediatr Dent21, 325-326.
Man Qin., Jing Li., Sun Zhang. And Wenli Ma. (2008): Risk factors for severe ECC in children younger than 4 yrs old in Beijing; China. Pediatric Dentistry30(2), 122-128.
Man Wai Ng. (2003): Multicultural influences on child-rearing practices: implications for today’s pediatric dentist. Pediatric Dentistry 25(1),19-22.
Murray, JJ. (1996): Prevention of Oral Disease. 3rd Edition,.pp 3&231.
Namal, N., Vehit, HE. and Can, G. (2005): Risk factors for dental caries in Turkish pre-school children. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent23(3),115-118.
Poulsen, S. and Scheutz, F. (1999): Dental caries in Danish children and adolescents 1988-1997. Community Dent Health16, 166-170.
Robert, J. and Berkowitz. (2003): Causes, treatment and prevention of ECC: A Microbiological Perspective. J.Can Dent Assoc69(5),304.
Robert, JS., Douglas, JB., Michael, EK. and Moffatt. (2007): Caregiver knowledge and attitudes of preschool oral health and early childhood caries (ECC). International Journal of Circumpolar Health66(2),153-167.
Robert, JS., Pamela, JS. and Jeanne, CW. (2005): Prevalence of caries among preschool-aged children in a northern Manitoba Community. JCDA71(1),567.
Robertson, J.,McL, A., Reade, PC., Steidler, NE. and Spencer, AJ. (1989): A dental survey of Tibetan children in Dharamsala. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol17, 44-46.Rodrigues, CS. and Sheham, A. (2000): The relationship between dietary guidlines, sugar intake and caries in primary teeth in low income Brazilian 3 year olds: a longitudinal study. Int J. of Paediatric Dentistry10, 47-55.
Sweeney, PC. and Gel bier, S. (1999): The dental health of pre-school children in a deprived urban community in Glasgow. Community Dent Health16, 22-25.
Tang, JMW., Altman, DS., Robertson, DC., O'Sullivan, DM., Douglass, JM. And Tinanoff, N. (1997): Dental caries prevalence and treatment levels in Arizona pre-school children. Public Health Reports112, 319-329.
Tracy, L., Finlayson., Kristine, S., Ismail., Amid, I. and Woosung, S. (2007): Psychosocial factors and early childhood caries among low-income African–American children in Detroit. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol35, 439-448.
Vadiakas, G. (2008): Case definition, etiology and risk assessment of early childhood caries (ECC): A revisited review. European Archives of Pediatric Dentistry9(3),114-125.
Valaitis, R., Hesch, R., Passarelli, C., Sheehan, D. and Sinton, J. (2000): A systemic review of relationship between breastfeeding and ECC. CanadianJ of Pub Health 91(6),411-417.
Verrips, GH.,Kalsbeek, H. and Eijikman, MA. (1993): Ethnicity and maternal education as risk indicators for dental caries and role of dental behavior. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol21, 209-214.
Vivek, DK. (2010): Early Childhood Caries–An Insight. J Int Oral health2(1), 1-9.